PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort descending Topic Resource Type File URL
Kick the Can - Fast Facts on Sugary Drinks
Kick the Can - Fast Facts on Sugary Drinks.
Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study
Colchero et al. BMJ. 2016;352:h6704. What has been the effect on purchases of beverages from stores in Mexico one year after implementation of the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages?
Policy Research Link
PHAdvocates Restaurant Survey FINAL Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States
Cumulated long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with more cases of DMFS (Dental, Missing, Filled) in individuals over 25. Full Citation: Heller KE, Burt BA, Eklund SA. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States. J Dent Res. Oct 2001;80(10):1949-1953.
2001 Sugary drinks Research Link
Relation between Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Drinks and Childhood Obesity: A Prospective, Observational Analysis
An analysis which concludes that increased sugar sweetened beverage intake is associated with obesity in children. Full Citation: Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet. 2001, 357, 505-508.
2001 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Glycemic Index; Physiological Mechanisms Relating to Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease
This review examines the physiological effects of  the glycemic index and the relevance of these effects in preventing and treating obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Important conclusion: The habitual consumption of high-glycemic index foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, may increase risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.  Full Citation: Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002; 287: 2414-2423.
2002 Sugar Research Link
Sugars and Dental Caries
Studies have confirmed the direct relation between intake of dietary sugars and dental caries across the life span. Full Citation: Touger-Decker R, van Loveren C. Sugars and dental caries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 881S-892S. 
2003 Sugar Research Link
The Scientific Basis of Recent US Guidance on Sugars Intake
A comprehensive review of sugar-related research used by the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee, with clear explanations of the difference between added and natural sugars and the health effects of too much added sugars. A useful primer on the science of sugar. Full Citation: Murphy SP, Johnson RK. The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003; 78(suppl):827S-833S.
2003 Sugar Research Link
Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity
Analysis of US Department of Agriculture 1967-2000 food consumption tables estimate a daily average consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to be 132 kcal for all Americans aged 2 y with the top 20% of consumers of caloric sweeteners ingesting 316 kca. Thus, the increase in consumption of HFCS has a temporal relation to the epidemic of obesity, and the overconsumption of HFCS in calorically sweetened beverages possibly playing a role in the epidemic of obesity. Full Citation: Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 537-543.
2004 Sugary drinks Research Link
Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women
Study demonstrates that decreases of circulating insulin and leptin and increased ghrelin concentrations could lead to increased caloric intake and ultimately contribute to weight gain and obesity during chronic consumption of diets high in fructose. Full Citation: Teff KL, Elliott SS, Tschop M, et al. Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jun 2004;89(6):2963-2972.
2004 Sugar Research Link
Changes in Beverage Intake Between 1977 and 2001
Survey data from 1977-2001 show that , overall, energy intake from sweetened beverages increased 135% and energy intake from milk was reduced by 38%, resulting in a 278 total calorie increase across all age groups. Full Citation: Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27: 205-210.
2004 Sugary drinks Research Link
Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment
Overweight in children and adolescents can result in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. The best approach to this problem is prevention of abnormal weight gain. Full Citation: Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation. Apr 19 2005;111(15):1999-2012.
2005 Obesity Research Link
Adverse effect of high added sugar consumption on dietary intake in American preschoolers
Children with the highest level of added sugar intake (25% of energy or more) had the lowest consumption of most nutrients and servings of grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy. Full Citation: Kranz S, Smiciklas-Wright H, Siega-Riz AM, Mitchell D. Adverse effect of high added sugar consumption on dietary intake in American preschoolers. J Pediatr. Jan 2005;146(1):105-111.
2005 Sugary drinks Research Link
Liquid Candy
A comprehensive analysis of sugar-sweetened beverages and their effects on health, including historical information and a review of beverage marketing practices. Full citation: Jacobson MF. Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks Are Harming American’s Health. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Second Edition, First Printing: June 2005. Washington D.C.  
2005 Sugar Research Link
The relation of sugar intake to Beta cell function in overweight Latino children
In overweight Latino children, higher intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower acute insulin responses and disposition index (both indicators of risk for type 2 diabetes). Full Citation: Davis JN, Ventura EE, Weigensberg MJ, et al. The relation of sugar intake to beta cell function in overweight Latino children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 1004-1010.
2005 Sugar Research Link
Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
The presence of supermarkets was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight, and the presence of convenience stores was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight. Full Citation: Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med. Apr 2006;30(4):333-339.
2006 Obesity Research Link
Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain: A Systematic Review
A review of 30 studies about sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain concludes that greater consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight gain and obesity. Full Citation: Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 84(2):274-88.
2006 Sugar Research Link
Effects of Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Body Weight in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study
Experimental intervention by substituting non-caloric beverages for SSBs reduced SSB consumption by 82% and produced beneficial results in BMI change. Full Citation: Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. 2006; 117(3): 673-680.
2006 Sugary drinks Research Link
Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition
In children aged 2-10, about 13% of children display high carbonated soft drink consumption patterns; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. Full Citation: Sohn W, Burt BA, Sowers MR. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition. J Dent Res. Mar 2006;85(3):262-266.
2006 Sugary drinks Research Link
Who changes body mass between adolescence and adulthood? Factors predicting change in BMI between 16 year and 30 years in the 1970 British Birth Cohort.
"These data from ‘free-living’ adolescents followed into adult life support the importance of known risk factors such as reduction of sedentary behaviours and reduction of unhealthy eating patterns (consumption of carbonated drinks and takeaway foods, dieting) in the prevention of the persistence of obesity from childhood into adult life." Full Citation: Viner RM, Cole TJ. Who changes body mass between adolescence and adulthood? Factors predicting change in BMI between 16 year and 30 years in the 1970 British Birth Cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). Sep 2006;30(9):1368-1374.
2006 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study
Study finds positive association of added sugar, soft drinks, and sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit consumption with pancreatic cancer risk. Full Citation: Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 1171-1176.
2006 Sugar Research Link
Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study
The 4% of children (99th P of BMI-for-age) may be appropriate for identification as very high risk for biochemical abnormalities and severe adult obesity. Full Citation: Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr. Jan 2007;150(1):12-17 e12.
2007 Obesity Research Link
Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
"In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients  and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes)." Full Citation: Vartanian LR, Schwatrz MB, Borwwnell KD. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health. April 2007; 97(4): 667-675.
2007 Sugary drinks Research Link
Shifts in Patterns and Consumption of Beverages Between 1965 and 2002
Between 1977 and 2002 Americans increased their calorie intake from soft drinks by 228%. Full Citation: Duffey, K. J. and Popkin, B. M. (2007), Shifts in Patterns and Consumption of Beverages Between 1965 and 2002. Obesity, 15: 2739–2747. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.326
2007 Sugary drinks Research Link
Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-Term Weight Gain
Includes a helpful review of the literature on diet beverages and the health effects of artificial sweeteners. Full Citation: Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain. Obesity. 2008; 16: 1849-1900.
2008 Sugar Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American women.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Full Citation: Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(14): 1487-1492.
2008 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Who Owns What?
Visual depiction of the sugary drink industry structure. Full Citation: Howard PM. The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industry. 2008.
2008 Beverage industry Research Link
Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1984-2004.
Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Full Citation: Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics. 2008; 121(6): e1604-e1614.
2008 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American women.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Full Citation: Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(14): 1487-1492.
2008 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
High sucrose intake is associated with poor quality of diet and growth between 13 months and 9 years of age: the special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project
In children aged 13 months to 9 years, long-term low sucrose intake is associated with better nutrient intake and growth than high sucrose intake. Full Citation: Ruottinen S, Niinikoski H, Lagstrom H, et al. High sucrose intake is associated with poor quality of diet and growth between 13 months and 9 years of age: the special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Pediatrics. Jun 2008;121(6):e1676-1685.
2008 Sugar Research Link
Diabetes of the Liver: The Link Between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and HFCS-55
"We argue that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) causes increased hepatic triglyceride content and markers of insulin resistance in vitro (test tube environment) and in vivo (living organism environment). Our observations provide evidence for a mechanism by which HFCS-55 may cause hepatic lipogenesis and metabolic dysregulation similar to NAFLD." Full Citation: Collison KS, Saleh SM, Bakheet RH, et al. Diabetes of the liver: The link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and HFCS-55. Obesity. 2009; 17: 2003-2013.
2009 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Sugar Water Gets a Facelift
What marketing does for soda. Full Citation: Berkeley Media Studies Group. Sugar Water Gets a Facelift: What Marketing Does for Soda. September, 2009.
2009 Marketing Research Link
Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
Study suggesting that, while glucose and fructose consumption lead to weight gain, dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.  Full Citation: Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009; 119: 1322-1334.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Artificially Sweetened Beverages: Cause for Concern
Artificially sweetened beverages may not be the optimal "diet drink" for weight loss. Full Citation: Ludwig DS. Artificially sweetened beverages: cause for concern. Jama. Dec 9 2009;302(22):2477-2478.
2009 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Coca-Cola Opinion Article Against Soda Tax
Atlanta Journal and Constitution, April 5, 2009, anti-soda tax article by Sandy Douglas (President of Coca-Cola North America).
2009 Beverage industry Media/Opinion Link
Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Metabolic Syndrome
80% of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients display higher soft drink consumption in comparison to 17% of healthy controls. Full Citation: Abid A, Taha O, Nseir W, Farah R, et al. Soft drink consumption is associated with fatty liver disease independent of metabolic syndrome. J Hep. 2009; 51: 918-924.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Serum Uric Acid, and Blood Pressure in Adolescents.
Results from a nationally representative sample of US adolescents indicate that higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher serum uric acid levels and systolic blood pressure. Full Citation: Nguyen S, Choi HK, Lustig RH, Hsu C. Sugar-sweetened beverages, serum uric acid, and blood pressure in adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009; 145: 807-813.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes and Its Association With Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Hyperinsulinemia Among U.S. Adolescents
Pre-diabetes was highly prevalent among adolescents. Hyperinsulinemia was independently associated with pre-diabetes and may account for the association of overweight and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors with pre-diabetes. Full Citation: Li C, Ford ES, Zhao G, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of pre-diabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsulinemia among U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Diabetes Care. Feb 2009;32(2):342-347.
2009 Diabetes Research Link
Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women
"Regular consumption of SSBs is associated with a higher risk of CHD in women, even after other unhealthful lifestyle or dietary factors are accounted for." Full Citation: Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM, et al. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4): 1037-1042.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Obesity and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in African-American Preschool Children: A Longitunal Study
"In this longitudinal cohort of low-income African-American preschool children, we found that baseline consumption of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with BMI z-scores" Full Citation: Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM, et al. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity. 2009; 17(6): 1262-1268.
2009 Obesity Research Link

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