PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically)sort ascending Published Year Topic Resource Type File URL
Why Government Must Lead the Fight Against Obesity
A review of obesity prevention policies from around the world that concludes “only governments- national, regional, and local- have the scope, scale and mandate to ensure the participation and collaboration of all stakeholders” necessary for obesity prevention. Full Citation: Algazy J, Gipstein S,  Farhad Riahi F, Tryon K. Why governments must lead the fight against obesity. McKinsey Quarterly. October 2010.
2010 Obesity Research Link
Who Owns What?
Visual depiction of the sugary drink industry structure. Full Citation: Howard PM. The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industry. 2008.
2008 Beverage industry Research Link
Who changes body mass between adolescence and adulthood? Factors predicting change in BMI between 16 year and 30 years in the 1970 British Birth Cohort.
"These data from ‘free-living’ adolescents followed into adult life support the importance of known risk factors such as reduction of sedentary behaviours and reduction of unhealthy eating patterns (consumption of carbonated drinks and takeaway foods, dieting) in the prevention of the persistence of obesity from childhood into adult life." Full Citation: Viner RM, Cole TJ. Who changes body mass between adolescence and adulthood? Factors predicting change in BMI between 16 year and 30 years in the 1970 British Birth Cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). Sep 2006;30(9):1368-1374.
2006 Sugary drinks Research Link
Whats in Your Drink?
How many teaspoons of sugar and fat are in your sugary drink? From Kaiser Permanente.
2010 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Water First: A Toolkit for Promoting Water Intake in Community Settings (Factsheet)
UCSF. Factsheet highlighting evidence-based strategies to help your community promote the consumption of water instead of sugary drinks in schools, child care facilities, parks, clinics, and other community-based sites.
2016 Policy Fact Sheet Link
Water First: A Toolkit for Promoting Water Intake in Community Settings
UCSF. Evidence-based strategies to help your community promote the consumption of water instead of sugary drinks in schools, child care facilities, parks, clinics, and other community-based sites.
2016 Policy Reports and Tool Kits Link
Water and Sports Drinks
Kick the Can's fact sheet on water and sports drinks.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals
Studies on effective weight loss strategies maintained by weight loss individuals maintaining at least 10% weight loss reveal more use of dietary strategies to accomplish weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction on fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Full Citation: Phelan S, Lang W, Jordan D, Wing RR. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals. Int J Obes (Lond). Oct 2009;33(10):1183-1190.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Trends in Television Food Advertising to Young People: 2011 Update.
Changes in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage on television from 2002 through 2011 were tracked and compared to adult exposure levels. On average, adolescents viewed 23% more ads in 2011 than in 2007 while adults viewed an increase of 32% more ads in 2011 than in 2007. 2- to 11- years experienced a slight decrease in advertising exposure from 2004 to 2011. Full Citation: Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Trends in television food advertising to young people: 2011 update. Rudd Report.. 2012; Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/doc/what/reports/RuddRepo...
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010
This study analyzes calorie intake from SSBs for youth and adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2010. Full citation: Kit B, Fakhouri T, Park S, Nielsen S, Ogden C. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013. 
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?
A systematic review finding that sugary drinks account for at least one-fifth of all weight gained in the US population between 1977 and 2007.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement
Gortmaker et al. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(1):102–111. In our model, three of the seven interventions—excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals—saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000–576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity.
2015 Obesity, Policy Research Link
Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement
Gortmaker et al. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(1):102–111. In our model, three of the seven interventions—excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals—saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000–576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity.
2015 Obesity, Policy Research Link
Thinking Forward: The Quicksand of Appeasing the Food Industry
Opinion piece claims that "left to regulate itself, the food industry has the opportunity, if not the mandate from shareholders, to sell more products irrespective of their impact on consumers. Government, foundations, and other powerful institutions should be working for regulation, not collaboration." Full Citation: Brownell KD. Thinking Forward: The Quicksand of Appeasing the Food Industry. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(7): e1001254.
2012 Beverage industry Media/Opinion Link
They Say, We Know
The soda industry consistently uses the same arguments to push back against taxing their products. But only a couple of them are credible, and none of them provides a solid reason to oppose a tax.
2011 Beverage industry Fact Sheet Link
The Truth About Sports Drinks.
This article investigates the links between the sports drinks industry and academia that have helped market the science of hydration. Full Citation: Cohen D. The truth about sports drinks. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4737.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Scientific Basis of Recent US Guidance on Sugars Intake
A comprehensive review of sugar-related research used by the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee, with clear explanations of the difference between added and natural sugars and the health effects of too much added sugars. A useful primer on the science of sugar. Full Citation: Murphy SP, Johnson RK. The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003; 78(suppl):827S-833S.
2003 Sugar Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
The relation of sugar intake to Beta cell function in overweight Latino children
In overweight Latino children, higher intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower acute insulin responses and disposition index (both indicators of risk for type 2 diabetes). Full Citation: Davis JN, Ventura EE, Weigensberg MJ, et al. The relation of sugar intake to beta cell function in overweight Latino children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 1004-1010.
2005 Sugar Research Link
The Negative Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Children’s Health
A research review synthesizing the negative health impacts of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on children. Full citation: Healthy Eating Research. The Negative Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Children’s Health. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, November 2009.
2009 Sugar Research Link
The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach
The article estimates the medical costs associated with obesity in the U.S. Full citation: Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. Jan 2012;31(1):219-230.
2012 Obesity Research Link
The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents’ Choices
Roberto, Christina A., et al. "The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents’ Choices." Pediatrics (2016): peds-2015. US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful.
2016 Policy Research Link
The Impact of Social Media Conversations on Consumer Brand Choices
Liu, Y and Lopez, R. University of Connecticut. Poster 2014. Summary: How does word-of-mouth (WOM) and social media affect consumer’s preferences and choices in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) market? Research shows that consumer exposure to WOM on various social media sites can be a significant driver of consumer purchasing behavior. Consumers’ conversations about brands and nutritional aspects of CSDs have a significant impact on their preferences. However, the volume of WOM rather than the sentiment is what matters the most. This has important implications not only for firm strategy but also for public health policy aimed at influencing consumer diets. Further, based on the demand parameter estimates, we simulate the market shares for all brands under alternative scenarios. (1) No specific social media conversations on each brand: setting the brand social media goodwill for all CSD products to zero, while assuming other variables at constant levels. (2) A national health campaign on CSDs, which leads to increasing discussion of sugar on social media sites, assuming the total social media conversations regarding sugar is increased by 10% . (3) No social media conversations regarding caffeine. We find that Coke and Pepsi would experience the largest decrease in market shares without brand social media conversations and that sugary CSDs would suffer larger losses with a higher level of conversations about sugar.
2014 Marketing Research Link
The Impact of Food Prices on Consumption: A Systematic Review of Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Food.
"Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7– 0.8)." Full Citation: Andreyeva T, Long MW, Brownell KD. The impact of food prices on consumption: A systematic review of research on price elasticity of demand for food. Am J Pub Health. 2010; 100(2): 216-222.
2010 Beverage industry Research Link
The Health Consequences of Drinking Soda and Other Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Kick the Can's fact sheet about the health effects of drinking sugary beverages.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
The Glycemic Index; Physiological Mechanisms Relating to Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease
This review examines the physiological effects of  the glycemic index and the relevance of these effects in preventing and treating obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Important conclusion: The habitual consumption of high-glycemic index foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, may increase risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.  Full Citation: Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002; 287: 2414-2423.
2002 Sugar Research Link
The Future of Beverages: 7 Key Changes the Beverage Industry Must Accept
The beverage industry, multifarious in its composition and structure, is ever-evolving and consistently growing in stature. With an enormous array of beverage options available to consumers, the market has been divided into confusing subsections, but one thing is clear: the future of beverages is healthy. 
2013 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment.
Systematic review finds that there is a "striking lack of evidence to support the vast majority of sports-related products that make claims related to enhanced performance or recovery." Full Citation: Heneghan C, Howick J, O’Neill B, Gill P, Lasserson D, Cohen D, DAvis R, Ward A, Smith A, Jones G, Thompson M. The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment. BMJ Open. 2012; 2: e1702.
2012 Marketing Research Link
The Economic Costs of Overweight, Obesity, and Physical Inactivity Among California Adults -- 2006
This study estimated the cost to California for overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity in 2006 to be $41.2 billion. Of the total costs, $21.0 billion was attributable to overweight and obesity and $20.2 billion was attributable to physical inactivity. Fulll Citation: Chenoweth & Associates, Inc. THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, AND PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG CALIFORNIA ADULTS — 2006. California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 2009.
2009 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
The Challenge We Face
Excerpt from: "Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity within a Generation." White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President. May 2010.
2010 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood has been found to be directly associated with increased BMI in adulthood for women.  Full Citation: Nissinen K, Mikkila V, Mannisto S, et al. Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Public Health Nutr. Nov 2009; 12(11): 2018-2026.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of Coronary Heart Disease and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin.Full Citation: de Koning L, Malik VS, Kellogg MD, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu  FB. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men. Circulation. 2012; 125: 1735-41.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women
"Regular consumption of SSBs is associated with a higher risk of CHD in women, even after other unhealthful lifestyle or dietary factors are accounted for." Full Citation: Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM, et al. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4): 1037-1042.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
The presence of supermarkets was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight, and the presence of convenience stores was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight. Full Citation: Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med. Apr 2006;30(4):333-339.
2006 Obesity Research Link
Sugary Drinks and Latino Kids
This document explores the impact of sugary drink consumption by Latino kids and provides policy recommendations to combat the negative health effects of sugary drinks.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugary Drink Supersizing and the Obesity Epidemic
Factsheet from Harvard School of Public Health's The Nutrition Source.  The latest research on how sugary drinks are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Sugary drink portion sizes have risen dramatically over the past 40 years, and children and adults are drinking more soft drinks than ever. Sugary drinks increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and gout. Cutting back on sugary drinks can help people control their weight.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity
Even though children’s fruit drinks often come in smaller 6- to 7-ounce containers, two-thirds of these drinks contain more than 15 rams of sugar, the maximum amount that children should consume in a day, and one-third contain 20 grams or more. Full Citation: Harris JL, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD, et al. Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. 2011.
2011 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link

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