PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup
Walker R, Dumke K, Goran M. “Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.” Nutrition, 2014. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption.
2014 Sugar, Sugary drinks Research Link
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Association between sugar-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis
Wang M, Yu M, Fang L and Hu RY. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2014. DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12309 Findings suggested that sugar-sweetened beverages intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and the association was attenuated by adjustment for BMI. Specifically, the associations were also found significant positive in USA, Europe.
2014 Diabetes, Sugary drinks Research Link
Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Providing Caloric Information
Objectives. We examined the ways in which adolescents altered the type and size of their purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), together with whether the effects persisted after removing caloric information signs in stores. Results. We found that providing caloric information significantly reduced the number of total beverage calories purchased, the likelihood of buying an SSB, and the likelihood of buying an SSB greater than 16 ounces (P < .05). After removing the signs, the quantity, volume, and number of calories from SSB purchases remained lower than baseline (P < .05). Conclusions. Providing caloric information was associated with purchasing a smaller SSB, switching to a beverage with no calories, or opting to not purchase a beverage; there was a persistent effect on reducing SSB purchases after signs were removed. Bleich S, Barry CL, Gary-Webb TL, and Herring BJ. Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1–e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302150
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soda and Cell Aging: Associations Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. Leung C et.al. Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1–e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302151
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Adults — 18 States, 2012
To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ≥1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4% [CA = 22.9%]. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18‒34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. August 15, 2014. Vol. 63. No. 32
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
Kick the Can - They Say, We Know 8/2014 2014 Beverage industry Fact Sheet Link
2014 Sugary Drink FACTS Report
2014 Sugary Drink FACTS (Food Advertising to Children and Teens Score)
2014 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death
Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD.
2014 Obesity Research Link
ChangeLab Solutions: Model Legislation Requiring Safety Warning for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
From ChangeLab Solutions, this model legislation is developed for states that want to implement a policy requiring a safety warning on SSB containers and packaging. Intended for use by states seeking to increase consumer awareness. Includes model findings, which are an accompanying set of evidence-backed facts that support the legislation.
2014 Sugary drinks Legislation/Policy Link
Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight
Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Impact of Social Media Conversations on Consumer Brand Choices
Liu, Y and Lopez, R. University of Connecticut. Poster 2014. Summary: How does word-of-mouth (WOM) and social media affect consumer’s preferences and choices in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) market? Research shows that consumer exposure to WOM on various social media sites can be a significant driver of consumer purchasing behavior. Consumers’ conversations about brands and nutritional aspects of CSDs have a significant impact on their preferences. However, the volume of WOM rather than the sentiment is what matters the most. This has important implications not only for firm strategy but also for public health policy aimed at influencing consumer diets. Further, based on the demand parameter estimates, we simulate the market shares for all brands under alternative scenarios. (1) No specific social media conversations on each brand: setting the brand social media goodwill for all CSD products to zero, while assuming other variables at constant levels. (2) A national health campaign on CSDs, which leads to increasing discussion of sugar on social media sites, assuming the total social media conversations regarding sugar is increased by 10% . (3) No social media conversations regarding caffeine. We find that Coke and Pepsi would experience the largest decrease in market shares without brand social media conversations and that sugary CSDs would suffer larger losses with a higher level of conversations about sugar.
2014 Marketing Research Link
Kick the Can Factsheet: Sugary Drinks and Diabetes
Kick the Can's Factsheet on "Sugary Drinks and Diabetes".  Sept 2014
2014 Diabetes Fact Sheet Link
Hiding Under a Health Halo (Policy Brief): Examining the Data Behind Health Claims on Sugary Beverages
By Atkins Center for Weight and Health, UC Berkeley, and California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 2014.   Beverage companies commonly promote questionable and often misleading health claims for relatively new categories of nutrient fortified sugar-sweetened beverages – sports drinks, energy drinks, “enhanced” fruit drinks, and bottled teas and coffees – designed and marketed to attract increasingly health-conscious consumers.   However, careful investigation clarifies the true nature of these beverages and the reality behind manufacturers’ health claims.  
2014 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Added Sugars. Subtracted Science: How Industry Obscures Science and Undermines Public Health Policy on Sugar
This report explores how sugar interests have actively sought to deceive the public and ensure that Americans continue to consume high amounts of sugar.  By the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists.
2014 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Diabetes Tied to a Third of California Hospital Stays, Driving Health Care Costs Higher
Increasing diabetes prevalence has been found to be a primary driver of increased health care costs in the United States. This policy brief examines the impact of diabetes on hospitalizations and related hospitalization costs in California. Using 2011 hospital patient discharge data and annual financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), this study found that patients with diabetes represented 31 percent of hospitalizations in California in 2011 among patients 35 years or older, including 39 percent of African-American andAsian-American patients and 43 percent of Latino patients. Moreover, these hospitalizations cost nearly $2,200 more per hospitalization than those for patients without diabetes, regardless of the primary reason for the hospitalization. 
2014 Diabetes Research Link
"How Sweet it Isn't" - The Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tool Kit for Park & Recreation Agencies
By California Park & Recreation Society & California Center for Public Health Advocacy, March 2014. This Tool Kit presents research and facts about the impact of sugar sweetened beverages, action steps, and resources so every park and recreation agency can take action and communicate its role in supporting healthy lifestyle choices.
2014 Policy Reports and Tool Kits Link
Big Soda’s long shadow: news coverage of local proposals to tax sugar-sweetened beverages in Richmond, El Monte and Telluride
Nixon L, Mejia P, Cheyne A, Dorfman L. Critical Public Health. Dec 2014 In 2012 and 2013, Richmond and El Monte, CA, and Telluride, CO, became the first communities in the country to vote on citywide sugary drink taxes. In the face of massive spending from the soda industry, all three proposals failed at the ballot box, but the vigorous public debates they inspired provide valuable insights for future policy efforts. We analyzed local and national news coverage of the three proposals and found that pro-tax arguments appeared most frequently in the news. Advocates for the taxes focused primarily on the potential community health benefits the taxes could produce and the health harms caused by sodas. Tax opponents capitalized on the existing political tensions in each community, including racial and ethnic divisions in Richmond, anti-government attitudes in El Monte, and a culture of individualism in Telluride. Pro-tax arguments came mainly from city officials and public health advocates, while anti-tax forces recruited a wide range of people to speak against the tax. The soda industry itself was conspicuously absent from news coverage. Instead, in each community, the industry funded anti-tax coalition groups, whose affiliation with industry was often not acknowledged in the news. Our analysis of this coverage exposes how soda tax opponents used strategies established by the tobacco industry to fight regulation. Despite these defeats, tax advocates can take inspiration from more mature public health campaigns, which indicate that such policies may take many years to gain traction.
2014 Policy Research Link
California Field Research Poll: Obesity in Rural California Counties
California Field Research Poll: Obesity in Rural California Counties. Ninety-four percent of registered voters surveyed in 12 rural California counties say obesity is a serious problem for the nation, and 84 percent believe it’s a serious problem for their communities, a Field Research poll released Tuesday, January 22nd, 2013 finds. A majority of these voters say their communities should do more to address obesity, and want help from business, government, individuals and community groups.
2013 Obesity Research Link
Associations Between Obesity and Comorbid Mental Health, Developmental, and Physical Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Children Aged 10 to 17
Childhood overweight and obesity were associated with higher rates of ADHD, conduct disorders, depression, learning disabilities, developmental delay, good/fair/poor teeth, bone/joint/muscle problems, asthma, allergies, headaches, and ear infections. Full Citation: Halfon N, Larson K, Slusser W. Associations Between Obesity and Comorbid Mental Health, Developmental, and Physical Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Children Aged 10 to 17. Academic Pediatrics. 2013: 13(1); 6-13.
2013 Obesity Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status Among United States Schoolchildren.
Beverage consumption patterns did not substantially differ across weight status groups, but by race/ethnicity in the home. Full Citation: Dodd AH, Briefel R, Cahili C, et al. Disparities in consumption of sugar-sweetened and other beverages by race/ethnicity and obesity status among United States schoolchildren. J Nutr Educ Beh. 2013; 45(3).
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes
This longitudinal cohort study showed a direct association between sugar-sweetened beverages and artificically-sweetened beverages and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women, which persisted after adjustment for BMI and energy intake. Full Citation: Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Sartorelli DS, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epide´ miologique aupre` s des femmes de la Mutuelle Ge´ ne´ rale de l’Education Nationale–European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Young Children
Kick the Can's fact sheet on the effects of sugary drinks on young children.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Health Advocates Call on Beverage Industry to Make Changes that Matter
Press Release from CCPHA  (January 17, 2013). AsCoca-cola airs a commercial lauding their efforts to address obesity and CCPHA recommends 7 ways the industry could acutally help fight obesity.
2013 Marketing Media/Opinion Link
Expanding Portion Sizes in the US Marketplace: Implications for Nutrition Counseling
Study examining food and beverage portion sizes and changes in these over time. Full Citation: Young LR, Nestle M. Expanding Portion Sizes in the US Marketplace: Implications for Nutrition Counseling. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2003; 103(2): 231-234.
2013 Obesity Research Link
Water and Sports Drinks
Kick the Can's fact sheet on water and sports drinks.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
The Health Consequences of Drinking Soda and Other Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Kick the Can's fact sheet about the health effects of drinking sugary beverages.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity.
In this viewpoint, a pediatrician from the University of California, San Francisco makes a strong case for removing sugar-sweetened beverages from hospitals. Citation: Wojcicki JM. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity. Acta Paediatr. Jun 2013;102(6):560-561.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar and Health
Kick the Can's fact sheets on the health effects of consuming sugar and sugary drinks.
2013 Sugar Fact Sheet Link
How Sugar Sweetened Beverages Became a Leading Contributor to the Obesity Epidemic
Kick the Can's fact sheet about the beverage industry's bold and unrelenting marketing campaigns, increases in sugary drink portion sizes, concerted efforts by the beverage industry to keep prices low, and dramatic expansion of sugary drink product availability.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Financial Conflicts of Interest and Reporting Bias Regarding the Association between Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews
by Maira Bes-Rastrollo , Matthias B. Schulze, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez Summary: Industry sponsors' financial interests might bias the conclusions of scientific research. We examined whether financial industry funding or the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest influenced the results of published systematic reviews (SRs) conducted in the field of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and weight gain or obesity.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Fast Food Facts: Measuring Progress in Nutrition and Marketing to Children and Teens
Fast food companies still target kids with marketing for unhealthy products. In 2012 the fast food industry spent $4.6 billion to advertise mostly unhealthy products, and children and teens remained key audiences for that advertising, according to a new report by the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. The report highlights a few positive developments, such as healthier sides and beverages in most restaurants' kids' meals, but also shows that restaurants still have a long way to go to promote only healthier fast-food options to kids. 
2013 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Satiety
Kick the Can's fact sheet on sugary drinks and their effect on satiety (fullness).
2013 Sugar Fact Sheet Link
Sugar Consumption at a Crossroads
As the global cost of obesity approaches $700 billion, international bank Credit Suisse puts an economist's eye to the science of soda, table sugar versus high-fructose corn syrup, the increasing size of humans, and what's to be done.
2013 Sugar Reports and Tool Kits Link
Still Bubbling Over: California Adolescents Drinking More Soda and Other Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
This policy brief examines changes in consumption of soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages among youth in California. Using data from the California Health Interview Survey, this study found that although the percent of children under the age of 12 who drink at least one sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) per day dropped between 2005 and 2012, SSB consumption increased among adolescents.   
2013 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions
The results from this study imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake.
2013 Sugar Research Link
Athlete Endorsements in Food Marketing
This study quantified professional athletes’ endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults.
2013 Marketing Research Link
Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents 2013 Sugary drinks Research Link

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