PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death
Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD.
2014 Obesity Research Link
ChangeLab Solutions: Model Legislation Requiring Safety Warning for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
From ChangeLab Solutions, this model legislation is developed for states that want to implement a policy requiring a safety warning on SSB containers and packaging. Intended for use by states seeking to increase consumer awareness. Includes model findings, which are an accompanying set of evidence-backed facts that support the legislation.
2014 Sugary drinks Legislation/Policy Link
Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight
Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Impact of Social Media Conversations on Consumer Brand Choices
Liu, Y and Lopez, R. University of Connecticut. Poster 2014. Summary: How does word-of-mouth (WOM) and social media affect consumer’s preferences and choices in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) market? Research shows that consumer exposure to WOM on various social media sites can be a significant driver of consumer purchasing behavior. Consumers’ conversations about brands and nutritional aspects of CSDs have a significant impact on their preferences. However, the volume of WOM rather than the sentiment is what matters the most. This has important implications not only for firm strategy but also for public health policy aimed at influencing consumer diets. Further, based on the demand parameter estimates, we simulate the market shares for all brands under alternative scenarios. (1) No specific social media conversations on each brand: setting the brand social media goodwill for all CSD products to zero, while assuming other variables at constant levels. (2) A national health campaign on CSDs, which leads to increasing discussion of sugar on social media sites, assuming the total social media conversations regarding sugar is increased by 10% . (3) No social media conversations regarding caffeine. We find that Coke and Pepsi would experience the largest decrease in market shares without brand social media conversations and that sugary CSDs would suffer larger losses with a higher level of conversations about sugar.
2014 Marketing Research Link
Kick the Can Factsheet: Sugary Drinks and Diabetes
Kick the Can's Factsheet on "Sugary Drinks and Diabetes".  Sept 2014
2014 Diabetes Fact Sheet Link
Hiding Under a Health Halo (Policy Brief): Examining the Data Behind Health Claims on Sugary Beverages
By Atkins Center for Weight and Health, UC Berkeley, and California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 2014.   Beverage companies commonly promote questionable and often misleading health claims for relatively new categories of nutrient fortified sugar-sweetened beverages – sports drinks, energy drinks, “enhanced” fruit drinks, and bottled teas and coffees – designed and marketed to attract increasingly health-conscious consumers.   However, careful investigation clarifies the true nature of these beverages and the reality behind manufacturers’ health claims.  
2014 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Diabetes Tied to a Third of California Hospital Stays, Driving Health Care Costs Higher
Increasing diabetes prevalence has been found to be a primary driver of increased health care costs in the United States. This policy brief examines the impact of diabetes on hospitalizations and related hospitalization costs in California. Using 2011 hospital patient discharge data and annual financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), this study found that patients with diabetes represented 31 percent of hospitalizations in California in 2011 among patients 35 years or older, including 39 percent of African-American andAsian-American patients and 43 percent of Latino patients. Moreover, these hospitalizations cost nearly $2,200 more per hospitalization than those for patients without diabetes, regardless of the primary reason for the hospitalization. 
2014 Diabetes Research Link
Added Sugars. Subtracted Science: How Industry Obscures Science and Undermines Public Health Policy on Sugar
This report explores how sugar interests have actively sought to deceive the public and ensure that Americans continue to consume high amounts of sugar.  By the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists.
2014 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
"How Sweet it Isn't" - The Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tool Kit for Park & Recreation Agencies
By California Park & Recreation Society & California Center for Public Health Advocacy, March 2014. This Tool Kit presents research and facts about the impact of sugar sweetened beverages, action steps, and resources so every park and recreation agency can take action and communicate its role in supporting healthy lifestyle choices.
2014 Policy Reports and Tool Kits Link
Big Soda’s long shadow: news coverage of local proposals to tax sugar-sweetened beverages in Richmond, El Monte and Telluride
Nixon L, Mejia P, Cheyne A, Dorfman L. Critical Public Health. Dec 2014 In 2012 and 2013, Richmond and El Monte, CA, and Telluride, CO, became the first communities in the country to vote on citywide sugary drink taxes. In the face of massive spending from the soda industry, all three proposals failed at the ballot box, but the vigorous public debates they inspired provide valuable insights for future policy efforts. We analyzed local and national news coverage of the three proposals and found that pro-tax arguments appeared most frequently in the news. Advocates for the taxes focused primarily on the potential community health benefits the taxes could produce and the health harms caused by sodas. Tax opponents capitalized on the existing political tensions in each community, including racial and ethnic divisions in Richmond, anti-government attitudes in El Monte, and a culture of individualism in Telluride. Pro-tax arguments came mainly from city officials and public health advocates, while anti-tax forces recruited a wide range of people to speak against the tax. The soda industry itself was conspicuously absent from news coverage. Instead, in each community, the industry funded anti-tax coalition groups, whose affiliation with industry was often not acknowledged in the news. Our analysis of this coverage exposes how soda tax opponents used strategies established by the tobacco industry to fight regulation. Despite these defeats, tax advocates can take inspiration from more mature public health campaigns, which indicate that such policies may take many years to gain traction.
2014 Policy Research Link
Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup
Walker R, Dumke K, Goran M. “Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.” Nutrition, 2014. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption.
2014 Sugar, Sugary drinks Research Link
CA City Soda Tax Calculator - Methodology
CA City Soda Tax Calculator: Data sources & Assumptions
2014 Policy Research Link
Employment Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes
Powell LM, Wada R, Persky JJ, and Chaloupka FJ. April 2014. American Journal of Public Health.
2014 Policy Research Link
Association between sugar-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis
Wang M, Yu M, Fang L and Hu RY. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2014. DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12309 Findings suggested that sugar-sweetened beverages intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and the association was attenuated by adjustment for BMI. Specifically, the associations were also found significant positive in USA, Europe.
2014 Diabetes, Sugary drinks Research Link
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup
Walker R, Dumke K, Goran M. “Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.” Nutrition, 2014. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption.
2014 Sugar, Sugary drinks Research Link
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Association between sugar-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis
Wang M, Yu M, Fang L and Hu RY. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2014. DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12309 Findings suggested that sugar-sweetened beverages intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and the association was attenuated by adjustment for BMI. Specifically, the associations were also found significant positive in USA, Europe.
2014 Diabetes, Sugary drinks Research Link
Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Providing Caloric Information
Objectives. We examined the ways in which adolescents altered the type and size of their purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), together with whether the effects persisted after removing caloric information signs in stores. Results. We found that providing caloric information significantly reduced the number of total beverage calories purchased, the likelihood of buying an SSB, and the likelihood of buying an SSB greater than 16 ounces (P < .05). After removing the signs, the quantity, volume, and number of calories from SSB purchases remained lower than baseline (P < .05). Conclusions. Providing caloric information was associated with purchasing a smaller SSB, switching to a beverage with no calories, or opting to not purchase a beverage; there was a persistent effect on reducing SSB purchases after signs were removed. Bleich S, Barry CL, Gary-Webb TL, and Herring BJ. Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1–e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302150
2014 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents 2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions
The results from this study imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake.
2013 Sugar Research Link
Athlete Endorsements in Food Marketing
This study quantified professional athletes’ endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults.
2013 Marketing Research Link
Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010
This study analyzes calorie intake from SSBs for youth and adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2010. Full citation: Kit B, Fakhouri T, Park S, Nielsen S, Ogden C. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013. 
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Overweight and Obesity
Kick the Can's fact sheet on overweight and obesity, and the role sugary drinks play.
2013 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Model Food and Beverage Policy (PHA)
Model language for organizational food and beverage policy
2013 Policy Legislation/Policy Link
Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study
The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents. Full Citation: Lesser LI, Zimmerman FJ, Cohen DA. "Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:20.
2013 Marketing Research Link
"If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It": Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students
"Among students at six colleges, taste and price, not health, were the dominant factors when choosing beverages. To reduce the high sugar-sweetened beverage intake in this population, students felt that interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water would be required to overcome preferences." Full Citation: Block JP, Gillman MW, Linakis SJ, Goldman RE.  "'If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It': Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students." Journal of ADolescent Health. 2013; Epublisehd.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Analysis of NHANES 2003-2010 surveys reveals sugar-sweetened beverages to be primarily responsible for the high caloric intakes of SSB consumers. In addition, SSB consumption is often associated with the intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are unhealthy. Full Citation: Mathias KC, Slining MM, Popkin BM. Foods and beverages associated with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44(4): 351-357.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes
This longitudinal cohort study showed a direct association between sugar-sweetened beverages and artificically-sweetened beverages and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women, which persisted after adjustment for BMI and energy intake. Full Citation: Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Sartorelli DS, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epide´ miologique aupre` s des femmes de la Mutuelle Ge´ ne´ rale de l’Education Nationale–European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior: 2008-2012
This review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation summarizes results from studies that have evaluated the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior from 2008-2012. The report finds strong public support for menu labeling, though results about the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior are mixed. 
2013 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward Pathways
Compared to glucose, fructose doesn't do as well at telling our brains we're full. Full Citation: Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT, Sherwin RS. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA 2013; 309(1):63-70.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Higher Food Prices May Threaten Food Security Status among American Low-Income Households with Children
Higher overall food prices were associated with higher risk of food insecurity.  However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity
The results show that sugar in liquid rather than in solid form was associated with higher levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin, and also with greater insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity, which was assessed with an index that used the kids' oral glucose tolerance tests, was reduced with higher dietary intakes of sugary drinks. Insulin resistance grew with higher intakes of liquid sugar.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Full Citation: Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 155-166.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies
This meta-analysis, commissioned by the World Health Organization, examines the causal relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity and obesity-related diseases. The authors include only randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in their analyses. Citation: Morenga LT, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Brit Med J. Jan 15 2013;346.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Energy Drink Self-Regulation
This report from the Public Health Advocacy Institute discusses how energy drink companies are viloating self-regulation guidelines established by their trade group, the American Beverage Association.
2013 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases
This review summarizes the preponderance of evidence to date supporting the link between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Specifically, the author discusses results from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies, which provide the strongest support for causation. The author concludes that available evidence for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity meets all of the criteria used to establish causation in non-communicable disease epidemiology. Steps should be taken immediately to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption rather than waiting for additional evidence. Citation: Hu FB. Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obes Rev. Jun 13 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link

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