PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Model Food and Beverage Policy (PHA)
Model language for organizational food and beverage policy
2013 Policy Legislation/Policy Link
Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010
This study analyzes calorie intake from SSBs for youth and adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2010. Full citation: Kit B, Fakhouri T, Park S, Nielsen S, Ogden C. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013. 
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Overweight and Obesity
Kick the Can's fact sheet on overweight and obesity, and the role sugary drinks play.
2013 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study
The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents. Full Citation: Lesser LI, Zimmerman FJ, Cohen DA. "Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:20.
2013 Marketing Research Link
"If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It": Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students
"Among students at six colleges, taste and price, not health, were the dominant factors when choosing beverages. To reduce the high sugar-sweetened beverage intake in this population, students felt that interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water would be required to overcome preferences." Full Citation: Block JP, Gillman MW, Linakis SJ, Goldman RE.  "'If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It': Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students." Journal of ADolescent Health. 2013; Epublisehd.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Analysis of NHANES 2003-2010 surveys reveals sugar-sweetened beverages to be primarily responsible for the high caloric intakes of SSB consumers. In addition, SSB consumption is often associated with the intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are unhealthy. Full Citation: Mathias KC, Slining MM, Popkin BM. Foods and beverages associated with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44(4): 351-357.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior: 2008-2012
This review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation summarizes results from studies that have evaluated the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior from 2008-2012. The report finds strong public support for menu labeling, though results about the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior are mixed. 
2013 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes
This longitudinal cohort study showed a direct association between sugar-sweetened beverages and artificically-sweetened beverages and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women, which persisted after adjustment for BMI and energy intake. Full Citation: Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Sartorelli DS, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epide´ miologique aupre` s des femmes de la Mutuelle Ge´ ne´ rale de l’Education Nationale–European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward Pathways
Compared to glucose, fructose doesn't do as well at telling our brains we're full. Full Citation: Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT, Sherwin RS. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA 2013; 309(1):63-70.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Higher Food Prices May Threaten Food Security Status among American Low-Income Households with Children
Higher overall food prices were associated with higher risk of food insecurity.  However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity
The results show that sugar in liquid rather than in solid form was associated with higher levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin, and also with greater insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity, which was assessed with an index that used the kids' oral glucose tolerance tests, was reduced with higher dietary intakes of sugary drinks. Insulin resistance grew with higher intakes of liquid sugar.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Full Citation: Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 155-166.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies
This meta-analysis, commissioned by the World Health Organization, examines the causal relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity and obesity-related diseases. The authors include only randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in their analyses. Citation: Morenga LT, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Brit Med J. Jan 15 2013;346.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Energy Drink Self-Regulation
This report from the Public Health Advocacy Institute discusses how energy drink companies are viloating self-regulation guidelines established by their trade group, the American Beverage Association.
2013 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases
This review summarizes the preponderance of evidence to date supporting the link between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Specifically, the author discusses results from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies, which provide the strongest support for causation. The author concludes that available evidence for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity meets all of the criteria used to establish causation in non-communicable disease epidemiology. Steps should be taken immediately to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption rather than waiting for additional evidence. Citation: Hu FB. Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obes Rev. Jun 13 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children
This study used a longitudinal cohort of children (followed from birth ot age 5) to examine the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption on BMI. The study found that children at age 5 who drank SSBs regularly had 43% higher odds of being obese.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugary Drinks and Latino Kids
This document explores the impact of sugary drink consumption by Latino kids and provides policy recommendations to combat the negative health effects of sugary drinks.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Caregivers' Psychosocial Factors Underlying 3 Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Non-Hispanic 4 Black Preschoolers: An Elicitation Study
Qualitative study describing the factors that influence caregiver decisions to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-hispanic black preschoolers. Factors considered include but are not limited to convenience, cost, taste, potential health consequences, availability, and pressure from other parents. Full Citation: Tipton JA. Caregivers' Psychosocial Factors Underlying Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Non-Hispanic Black Preschoolers: An Elicitation Study. J Pediatr Nur. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2013.06.006.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Future of Beverages: 7 Key Changes the Beverage Industry Must Accept
The beverage industry, multifarious in its composition and structure, is ever-evolving and consistently growing in stature. With an enormous array of beverage options available to consumers, the market has been divided into confusing subsections, but one thing is clear: the future of beverages is healthy. 
2013 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
A Guide to Food Industry Front Groups
One increasingly common way industry attempts to shape the public discourse is by forming a group that appears to benefit the public. Often these groups claim to represent farmers or consumers or some other sympathetic constituency when in fact they are funded by powerful industry players.
2013 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Full Citation: Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 155-166.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity
Findings challenge the view that Western lifestyles result in abnormally low daily energy expenditure, and that decreased energy expenditure is a primary cause of obesity in developed countries. Full Citation: Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, Marlowe FW. Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(7): e40503.
2012 Obesity Research Link
How Washington went soft on childhood obesity.
Reuters investigation  on Washington's relationship with the food and beverage groups that lobbied against the federal effort last year to write tougher – but still voluntary – nutritional standards for foods marketed to children.  They found that the White House kept silent as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children. Full Citation: Wilson D, Roberts J. How Washington went soft on childhood obesity. Reuters. April 27, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/27/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED... Accessed July 27, 2012.
2012 Marketing Media/Opinion Link
Trends in Television Food Advertising to Young People: 2011 Update.
Changes in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage on television from 2002 through 2011 were tracked and compared to adult exposure levels. On average, adolescents viewed 23% more ads in 2011 than in 2007 while adults viewed an increase of 32% more ads in 2011 than in 2007. 2- to 11- years experienced a slight decrease in advertising exposure from 2004 to 2011. Full Citation: Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Trends in television food advertising to young people: 2011 update. Rudd Report.. 2012; Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/doc/what/reports/RuddRepo...
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Federal Trade Commission: Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents
Federal Trade Commission. A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents: follow up report. December 2012. This report is a follow-up to the Federal Trade Commission’s 2008 report requested by Congress: Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self- Regulation. This report compares 2006 to 2009 data (i.e., first 3 years of self-regulation); it contains data from same 44 companies + 4 new; it analyzes spending and nutrition as well as assesses industry self-regulation against 2008 recommendations and identifies gaps.  
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial
Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages as a weight-loss strategy resulted in average weight losses of 2% to 2.5%. Full Citation: Tate DF, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options COnsciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. N Engl J Med 2011; 364(25): 2392-2404.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Factors Associated with Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among United States High School Students
A study examining the association of demographics, weight characteristics, availability of beverage vending machines in schools, and behavioral factors with SSB intake for high school students. Factors associated witha  greater likelihood of high SSB consumption include male gender, non-Hispanic black demographics, eating at fast food restaurants at least once a week or more, and television activity. Full Citation: Park S, Blanck HM, Sherry B, et al. Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students. J Nutr. 2012; 142: 306-312.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
CA Project LEAN: Parent Toolkit including lesson on sugary drinks in schools
CA  Project LEAN's Parent Lesson Plans: Advocating for Healthier School Environments including new section for addressing sugary drinks in schools.
2012 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Consumption of Sports Drinks by Children and Adolescents.
This research review examines the evidence about children’s and adolescents’ consumption of sports drinks and the related health implications and concludes that sports drinks are not recommended for the vast majority of youths engaged in normal physical activity. Recommendation given that government agencies need to monitor the effects of marketing sports drinks to children. Full Citation: Healthy Eating Research. Consumption of Sports Drinks by Children and Adolescents. Research Review, June 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Commentary: role of hydration in health and exercise.
Commentary detailing the evidence that the public has been misled—mainly by the marketing departments of companies selling sports drinks to increase sales—to believe that they need to drink to stay "ahead of thirst" to be optimally hydrated. Full Citation: Noakes TD. Commentary: role of hydration in health and exercise. BMJ. 2012; 344: e4171.
2012 Marketing Research Link
F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future, 2012
The number of obese adults, along with related disease rates and health care costs, are on course to increase dramatically in every state in the country over the next 20 years. Full Citation: F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future. Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. September 2012.
2012 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
NYC's Pouring on the Pounds Community Action Kit
Toolkit from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Pouring on the Pounds campaign to help fight obesity by limiting sugary drink consumption.
2012 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Thinking Forward: The Quicksand of Appeasing the Food Industry
Opinion piece claims that "left to regulate itself, the food industry has the opportunity, if not the mandate from shareholders, to sell more products irrespective of their impact on consumers. Government, foundations, and other powerful institutions should be working for regulation, not collaboration." Full Citation: Brownell KD. Thinking Forward: The Quicksand of Appeasing the Food Industry. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(7): e1001254.
2012 Beverage industry Media/Opinion Link
Miracle pills and fireproof trainers: user endorsement in social media.
Investigation of the marketing claims of sports products, including sports drinks, in social media in the UK and the US. Full Citation: Smith A, Jones G. Miracle pills and fireproof trainers: user endorsement in social media. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4682.
2012 Marketing Research Link
Consumption Patterns of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in the United States
The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption increased among children but decreased among adolescents and young adults. Soda was the most heavily consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled among adolescents. Full Citation: Han E, Powell LM. "Consumption Patterns of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in the United States" Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013; 113: 43-53.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Assessing the Economics of Obesity and Obesity Interventions
This paper examines the costs of obesity – present and future – and reviews the array of programs currently available to prevent and treat obesity, it also seeks to bridge the gap between those programs and how policymakers measure the benefit of policies to address chronic diseases like obesity. Full Citation: MJ O'Grady, JC Capretta. March 2012. Assessing the Economics of Obesity and Obesity Interventions. The Campaign to End Obesity.
2012 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link

Pages