PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Still Bubbling Over: California Adolescents Drinking More Soda and Other Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
This policy brief examines changes in consumption of soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages among youth in California. Using data from the California Health Interview Survey, this study found that although the percent of children under the age of 12 who drink at least one sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) per day dropped between 2005 and 2012, SSB consumption increased among adolescents.   
2013 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Athlete Endorsements in Food Marketing
This study quantified professional athletes’ endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults.
2013 Marketing Research Link
Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents 2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions
The results from this study imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake.
2013 Sugar Research Link
Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010
This study analyzes calorie intake from SSBs for youth and adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2010. Full citation: Kit B, Fakhouri T, Park S, Nielsen S, Ogden C. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013. 
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Overweight and Obesity
Kick the Can's fact sheet on overweight and obesity, and the role sugary drinks play.
2013 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Model Food and Beverage Policy (PHA)
Model language for organizational food and beverage policy
2013 Policy Legislation/Policy Link
Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study
The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents. Full Citation: Lesser LI, Zimmerman FJ, Cohen DA. "Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:20.
2013 Marketing Research Link
"If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It": Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students
"Among students at six colleges, taste and price, not health, were the dominant factors when choosing beverages. To reduce the high sugar-sweetened beverage intake in this population, students felt that interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water would be required to overcome preferences." Full Citation: Block JP, Gillman MW, Linakis SJ, Goldman RE.  "'If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It': Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students." Journal of ADolescent Health. 2013; Epublisehd.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Analysis of NHANES 2003-2010 surveys reveals sugar-sweetened beverages to be primarily responsible for the high caloric intakes of SSB consumers. In addition, SSB consumption is often associated with the intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are unhealthy. Full Citation: Mathias KC, Slining MM, Popkin BM. Foods and beverages associated with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44(4): 351-357.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes
This longitudinal cohort study showed a direct association between sugar-sweetened beverages and artificically-sweetened beverages and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women, which persisted after adjustment for BMI and energy intake. Full Citation: Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Sartorelli DS, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epide´ miologique aupre` s des femmes de la Mutuelle Ge´ ne´ rale de l’Education Nationale–European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior: 2008-2012
This review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation summarizes results from studies that have evaluated the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior from 2008-2012. The report finds strong public support for menu labeling, though results about the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior are mixed. 
2013 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward Pathways
Compared to glucose, fructose doesn't do as well at telling our brains we're full. Full Citation: Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT, Sherwin RS. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA 2013; 309(1):63-70.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Higher Food Prices May Threaten Food Security Status among American Low-Income Households with Children
Higher overall food prices were associated with higher risk of food insecurity.  However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity
The results show that sugar in liquid rather than in solid form was associated with higher levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin, and also with greater insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity, which was assessed with an index that used the kids' oral glucose tolerance tests, was reduced with higher dietary intakes of sugary drinks. Insulin resistance grew with higher intakes of liquid sugar.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Full Citation: Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 155-166.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies
This meta-analysis, commissioned by the World Health Organization, examines the causal relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity and obesity-related diseases. The authors include only randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in their analyses. Citation: Morenga LT, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Brit Med J. Jan 15 2013;346.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases
This review summarizes the preponderance of evidence to date supporting the link between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Specifically, the author discusses results from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies, which provide the strongest support for causation. The author concludes that available evidence for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity meets all of the criteria used to establish causation in non-communicable disease epidemiology. Steps should be taken immediately to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption rather than waiting for additional evidence. Citation: Hu FB. Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obes Rev. Jun 13 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children
This study used a longitudinal cohort of children (followed from birth ot age 5) to examine the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption on BMI. The study found that children at age 5 who drank SSBs regularly had 43% higher odds of being obese.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugary Drinks and Latino Kids
This document explores the impact of sugary drink consumption by Latino kids and provides policy recommendations to combat the negative health effects of sugary drinks.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Caregivers' Psychosocial Factors Underlying 3 Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Non-Hispanic 4 Black Preschoolers: An Elicitation Study
Qualitative study describing the factors that influence caregiver decisions to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-hispanic black preschoolers. Factors considered include but are not limited to convenience, cost, taste, potential health consequences, availability, and pressure from other parents. Full Citation: Tipton JA. Caregivers' Psychosocial Factors Underlying Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Non-Hispanic Black Preschoolers: An Elicitation Study. J Pediatr Nur. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2013.06.006.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach.
This experiment  found that eating bananas before and during prolonged and intensive exercise is as effective a strategy for supporting performance in athletes as drinking sports drinks. Full Citation: Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Henson DA, Sha W, Shanely RA, Knab AM, Cialdella-Kam L, Jin F. Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(5): e37479.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soda Consumption and the Risk of Stroke in Men and Women.
Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. Full Citation: Bernstein AM, de Konig L, Flint AJ, et al. Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95: 1190-1199.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks?
This article finds worrying deficiencies in the evidence used by the European Union's Food Safety Authority to evaluate the scientific basis of health claims made about sports drinks. Full Citation: Thompson M, Heneghan C, Cohen D. How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks? BMJ. 2012; 345: e4753.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Health Impact of Sugary Drinks in Richmond, CA
HEAL Cities with Contra Costa Health Services prepared a factsheet on the health effects of sugary drinks in the city of Richmond, CA. Available in both Spanish and English.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained.
A critical look at the evidence drink manufacturers use to back up claims that the sports drink, Lucozade, enhances sporting performance comes up short. Full Citation: Heneghan C, Perera R, Nunan D, Mahtani K, Gill P. Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4797.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach
The article estimates the medical costs associated with obesity in the U.S. Full citation: Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. Jan 2012;31(1):219-230.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Sugary Drink Supersizing and the Obesity Epidemic
Factsheet from Harvard School of Public Health's The Nutrition Source.  The latest research on how sugary drinks are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Sugary drink portion sizes have risen dramatically over the past 40 years, and children and adults are drinking more soft drinks than ever. Sugary drinks increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and gout. Cutting back on sugary drinks can help people control their weight.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
The Truth About Sports Drinks.
This article investigates the links between the sports drinks industry and academia that have helped market the science of hydration. Full Citation: Cohen D. The truth about sports drinks. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4737.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity
Findings challenge the view that Western lifestyles result in abnormally low daily energy expenditure, and that decreased energy expenditure is a primary cause of obesity in developed countries. Full Citation: Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, Marlowe FW. Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(7): e40503.
2012 Obesity Research Link
How Washington went soft on childhood obesity.
Reuters investigation  on Washington's relationship with the food and beverage groups that lobbied against the federal effort last year to write tougher – but still voluntary – nutritional standards for foods marketed to children.  They found that the White House kept silent as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children. Full Citation: Wilson D, Roberts J. How Washington went soft on childhood obesity. Reuters. April 27, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/27/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED... Accessed July 27, 2012.
2012 Marketing Media/Opinion Link
Trends in Television Food Advertising to Young People: 2011 Update.
Changes in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage on television from 2002 through 2011 were tracked and compared to adult exposure levels. On average, adolescents viewed 23% more ads in 2011 than in 2007 while adults viewed an increase of 32% more ads in 2011 than in 2007. 2- to 11- years experienced a slight decrease in advertising exposure from 2004 to 2011. Full Citation: Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Trends in television food advertising to young people: 2011 update. Rudd Report.. 2012; Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/doc/what/reports/RuddRepo...
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Federal Trade Commission: Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents
Federal Trade Commission. A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents: follow up report. December 2012. This report is a follow-up to the Federal Trade Commission’s 2008 report requested by Congress: Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self- Regulation. This report compares 2006 to 2009 data (i.e., first 3 years of self-regulation); it contains data from same 44 companies + 4 new; it analyzes spending and nutrition as well as assesses industry self-regulation against 2008 recommendations and identifies gaps.  
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?
Compared to eating solid foods, drinking liquids tells our body that we can eat more. Full citation: Cassady BA, Considine RV, Mattes RD. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect? Am J Clin Nutr. Mar 2012; 95(3):587-93.
2012 Beverage industry Research Link

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