PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Fast Food Facts: Measuring Progress in Nutrition and Marketing to Children and Teens
Fast food companies still target kids with marketing for unhealthy products. In 2012 the fast food industry spent $4.6 billion to advertise mostly unhealthy products, and children and teens remained key audiences for that advertising, according to a new report by the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. The report highlights a few positive developments, such as healthier sides and beverages in most restaurants' kids' meals, but also shows that restaurants still have a long way to go to promote only healthier fast-food options to kids. 
2013 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Sugar and Health
Kick the Can's fact sheets on the health effects of consuming sugar and sugary drinks.
2013 Sugar Fact Sheet Link
How Sugar Sweetened Beverages Became a Leading Contributor to the Obesity Epidemic
Kick the Can's fact sheet about the beverage industry's bold and unrelenting marketing campaigns, increases in sugary drink portion sizes, concerted efforts by the beverage industry to keep prices low, and dramatic expansion of sugary drink product availability.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Satiety
Kick the Can's fact sheet on sugary drinks and their effect on satiety (fullness).
2013 Sugar Fact Sheet Link
Sugar Consumption at a Crossroads
As the global cost of obesity approaches $700 billion, international bank Credit Suisse puts an economist's eye to the science of soda, table sugar versus high-fructose corn syrup, the increasing size of humans, and what's to be done.
2013 Sugar Reports and Tool Kits Link
Still Bubbling Over: California Adolescents Drinking More Soda and Other Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
This policy brief examines changes in consumption of soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages among youth in California. Using data from the California Health Interview Survey, this study found that although the percent of children under the age of 12 who drink at least one sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) per day dropped between 2005 and 2012, SSB consumption increased among adolescents.   
2013 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Athlete Endorsements in Food Marketing
This study quantified professional athletes’ endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults.
2013 Marketing Research Link
Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents 2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions
The results from this study imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake.
2013 Sugar Research Link
Model Food and Beverage Policy (PHA)
Model language for organizational food and beverage policy
2013 Policy Legislation/Policy Link
Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010
This study analyzes calorie intake from SSBs for youth and adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2010. Full citation: Kit B, Fakhouri T, Park S, Nielsen S, Ogden C. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013. 
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Overweight and Obesity
Kick the Can's fact sheet on overweight and obesity, and the role sugary drinks play.
2013 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study
The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents. Full Citation: Lesser LI, Zimmerman FJ, Cohen DA. "Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:20.
2013 Marketing Research Link
"If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It": Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students
"Among students at six colleges, taste and price, not health, were the dominant factors when choosing beverages. To reduce the high sugar-sweetened beverage intake in this population, students felt that interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water would be required to overcome preferences." Full Citation: Block JP, Gillman MW, Linakis SJ, Goldman RE.  "'If It Tastes Good, I’m Drinking It': Qualitative Study of Beverage Consumption Among College Students." Journal of ADolescent Health. 2013; Epublisehd.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Analysis of NHANES 2003-2010 surveys reveals sugar-sweetened beverages to be primarily responsible for the high caloric intakes of SSB consumers. In addition, SSB consumption is often associated with the intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are unhealthy. Full Citation: Mathias KC, Slining MM, Popkin BM. Foods and beverages associated with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44(4): 351-357.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes
This longitudinal cohort study showed a direct association between sugar-sweetened beverages and artificically-sweetened beverages and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women, which persisted after adjustment for BMI and energy intake. Full Citation: Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Sartorelli DS, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epide´ miologique aupre` s des femmes de la Mutuelle Ge´ ne´ rale de l’Education Nationale–European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior: 2008-2012
This review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation summarizes results from studies that have evaluated the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior from 2008-2012. The report finds strong public support for menu labeling, though results about the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior are mixed. 
2013 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward Pathways
Compared to glucose, fructose doesn't do as well at telling our brains we're full. Full Citation: Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT, Sherwin RS. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA 2013; 309(1):63-70.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Higher Food Prices May Threaten Food Security Status among American Low-Income Households with Children
Higher overall food prices were associated with higher risk of food insecurity.  However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity
The results show that sugar in liquid rather than in solid form was associated with higher levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin, and also with greater insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity, which was assessed with an index that used the kids' oral glucose tolerance tests, was reduced with higher dietary intakes of sugary drinks. Insulin resistance grew with higher intakes of liquid sugar.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Full Citation: Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 155-166.
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries
This study estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide and found that soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. 
2013 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies
This meta-analysis, commissioned by the World Health Organization, examines the causal relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity and obesity-related diseases. The authors include only randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in their analyses. Citation: Morenga LT, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Brit Med J. Jan 15 2013;346.
2013 Sugary drinks Research Link
The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
"Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity." Full Citation: Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH (2013) The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
2013 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Dietary-Related and Physical Activity-Related Predictors of Obesity in Children: A 2-Year Prospective Study
In a cohort of 271 children, exercising more and eating breakfasts with family more while watching less television and drinking less sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with more favorable results in adiposity (measured by body fat and BMI). Full Citation: Carlson JA, Crespo NC, Sallis JF, et al. Dietary-Related and Physical Activity-Related Predictors of Obesity in Children: A 2-Year Prospective Study. Childhood Obesity. April 2012. 8(2): 110-115.
2012 Obesity Research Link
A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight
Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up. Full Citation: Ebbeling, CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK, & Ludwig DS. A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight. New England Journal of Medicine. September 21, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203388.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consistency Between Increasing Trends in Added-Sugar Intake and Body Mass Index Among Adults: The Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980–1982 to 2007–2009
Analysis of 1980-1982 and 2007-2009 Minneapolis-St Paul residents show concurrent BMI increase with added-sugar intake in both genders and all age and weight groups. Full Citation: Wang H, Steffen LM, Zhou X, et al. Consistency between increasing trends in added-sugar intake and body mass index among adults: The Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980-1982 to 2007-2009. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; in press. 
2012 Obesity Research Link
Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States
The consumption of low calorie sweetener containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Full Citation: Sylvetsky AC, Welsh JA, Brown RJ, Vos MB. Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012; ajcn.034751.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on Frequency of Beverage Consumption among Youth in the United States
SNAP participation was not found to be predictive of the frequency of soft drink, 100% fruit juice, or milk consumption among youth. In its current state, SNAP may serve to replace lost income for qualifying households, but not alter their food and beverage choices. Interventions that support access to and incentivize the consumption of more healthful foods and beverages may be successful in improving the nutritional quality of intake. Full Citation: Fernandes MM (2012). Effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on Frequency of Beverage Consumption among Youth in the United States.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 12(8):1241-6.  
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999-2008
This article reports on the prevalence of risk factors for heart disease among adolescents (12-19 years old) from 1999-2008. While there was not a signifcant increase in the prevalence of prehypertension/hypertension or bad cholesterol from 1999-2008, there was a huge increase in prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes: 9% to 23%. Furthermore, 61% of obese youth had at least one risk factor heart disease compared with 37% of normal-weight youth. Citation: May AL, Kuklina EV, Yoon PW. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among US adolescents, 1999-2008. Pediatrics. Jun 2012;129(6):1035-1041.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Encouraging Trends in Student Access to Competitive Beverages in US Public Elementary Schools, 2006-2007 to 2010-2011
Survey study finds that students are buying less soda in schools, but sugary sports drinks are still a problem Full Citation: Turner L, Chaloupka FJ. Encouraging Trends in Student Access to Competitive Beverages in US Public Elementary Schools, 2006-2007 to 2010-201. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(7):673-675.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soda Consumption and the Risk of Stroke in Men and Women.
Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. Full Citation: Bernstein AM, de Konig L, Flint AJ, et al. Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95: 1190-1199.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach.
This experiment  found that eating bananas before and during prolonged and intensive exercise is as effective a strategy for supporting performance in athletes as drinking sports drinks. Full Citation: Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Henson DA, Sha W, Shanely RA, Knab AM, Cialdella-Kam L, Jin F. Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(5): e37479.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks?
This article finds worrying deficiencies in the evidence used by the European Union's Food Safety Authority to evaluate the scientific basis of health claims made about sports drinks. Full Citation: Thompson M, Heneghan C, Cohen D. How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks? BMJ. 2012; 345: e4753.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?
Compared to eating solid foods, drinking liquids tells our body that we can eat more. Full citation: Cassady BA, Considine RV, Mattes RD. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect? Am J Clin Nutr. Mar 2012; 95(3):587-93.
2012 Beverage industry Research Link
Health Impact of Sugary Drinks in Richmond, CA
HEAL Cities with Contra Costa Health Services prepared a factsheet on the health effects of sugary drinks in the city of Richmond, CA. Available in both Spanish and English.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained.
A critical look at the evidence drink manufacturers use to back up claims that the sports drink, Lucozade, enhances sporting performance comes up short. Full Citation: Heneghan C, Perera R, Nunan D, Mahtani K, Gill P. Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4797.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach
The article estimates the medical costs associated with obesity in the U.S. Full citation: Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. Jan 2012;31(1):219-230.
2012 Obesity Research Link

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