PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Consumption of Added Sugar Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005–2008
Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars, exceeding the 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommendations of 5%-15% of total caloric intake. Full Citation: Ervin RB, Kit BK, Carroll MD, et al. Consumption of added sugar among US children and adolescents, 2005-2008.NCHS Data Brief no. 87. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
2012 Sugar Research Link
Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030
This study estimates a 33% increase in obesity prevalence and a 130% increase in severe obesity prevalence over the next 2 decades. Full Citation: Finkelstein EA, Khavjou OA, Thompson H, et al. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030. Am J Prev Med. Jun 2012;42(6):563-570.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of Coronary Heart Disease and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin.Full Citation: de Koning L, Malik VS, Kellogg MD, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu  FB. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men. Circulation. 2012; 125: 1735-41.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soft drink intake in relation to incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and stroke subtypes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Centre–based study cohort
Soft drink intake is associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke for women. Full Citation: Eshak ES, Iso H, Kokubo Y, Saito I, Yamagishi K, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Soft drink intake in relation to incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and stroke subtypes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Centre–based study cohort I. Am J Clin Nutr December 2012 ajcn.037903; First published online October 17, 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Increasing Water Availability During Afterschool Snack: Evidence, Strategies, and Partnerships from a Group Randomized Trial
Participation in the intervention was associated with an average daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack. Full Citation: Giles CM, Kenney EL, Gortmaker SL, Lee RM, Thayer JC, Mont-Ferguson H, & Cradock AL. Increasing Water Availability During Afterschool Snack: Evidence, Strategies, and Partnerships from a Group Randomized Trial. American journal of preventive medicine. 2012; 43(3): S136–S142.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in the Distribution of Body Mass Index Among US Adults, 1999-2010
In 2009-2010, the prevalence of obesity was35.5% among adult menand 35.8% among adult women. No significant change compared with 2003-2008. Full Citation: Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among U.S. adults, 1999-2010. Jama. Feb 1 2012;307(5): 491-497.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity
Study found the genetic association with (fat) adiposity appeared to be more pronounced with greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Full Citation: Qi Q, Chu AY, Kang JH, Jensen MK, Curhan GC, Pasquale LR, Ridker PM, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity. New England Journal of Medicine. September 21, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203039.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Nonnutritive Sweeteners: Current Use and Health Perspectives from the American Heart Association
"At this time, there are insufficient data to determine conclusively whether the use of nonnutritive sweeteners to displace caloric sweeteners in beverages and foods reduces added sugars or carbohydrate intakes, or benefits appetite, energy balance, body weight, or cardiometabolic risk factors." Full Citation: Gardner C, Wylie-Rosett J, Gidding SS, Steffen LM, Johnson RK, Reader D, & Lichtenstein AH.  "Nonnutritive Sweeteners: Current Use and Health Perspectives. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association" Circulation. 2012;126:509-519.
2012 Sugar Research Link
Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Carbonated Soft Drink Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of 14 Cohort Studies
There is a suggestive, modest positive association between risk of pancreatic cancer and moderate SSB consumption. Full Citation: Genkinger JM, Li R, Spiegelman D, et al. Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(2): 305-318.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
A Trial of Sugar-free or Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Body Weight in Children
Masked replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages reduced weight gain and fat accumulation in normal-weight children. Full Citation: de Ruyter, JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, & Katan MB. A Trial of Sugar-free or Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Body Weight in Children. New England Journal of Medicine. September 21, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203034.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Reaching the healthy people goals for reducing childhood obesity: closing the energy gap
The federal government has set measurable goals for reducing childhood obesity to 5%by 2010 (Healthy People 2010), and 10% lower than 2005–2008 levels by 2020 (Healthy People 2020). To hit these goals, aggressive efforts are needed to reverse the positive energy imbalance underlying the childhood obesity epidemic. Full Citation: Wang YC, Orleans CT, Gortmaker SL. Reaching the healthy people goals for reducing childhood obesity: closing the energy gap. Am J Prev Med. May 2012;42(5):437-444.
2012 Obesity Research Link
A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight
Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up. Full Citation: Ebbeling, CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK, & Ludwig DS. A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight. New England Journal of Medicine. September 21, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203388.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Dietary-Related and Physical Activity-Related Predictors of Obesity in Children: A 2-Year Prospective Study
In a cohort of 271 children, exercising more and eating breakfasts with family more while watching less television and drinking less sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with more favorable results in adiposity (measured by body fat and BMI). Full Citation: Carlson JA, Crespo NC, Sallis JF, et al. Dietary-Related and Physical Activity-Related Predictors of Obesity in Children: A 2-Year Prospective Study. Childhood Obesity. April 2012. 8(2): 110-115.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States
The consumption of low calorie sweetener containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Full Citation: Sylvetsky AC, Welsh JA, Brown RJ, Vos MB. Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012; ajcn.034751.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consistency Between Increasing Trends in Added-Sugar Intake and Body Mass Index Among Adults: The Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980–1982 to 2007–2009
Analysis of 1980-1982 and 2007-2009 Minneapolis-St Paul residents show concurrent BMI increase with added-sugar intake in both genders and all age and weight groups. Full Citation: Wang H, Steffen LM, Zhou X, et al. Consistency between increasing trends in added-sugar intake and body mass index among adults: The Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980-1982 to 2007-2009. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; in press. 
2012 Obesity Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on Frequency of Beverage Consumption among Youth in the United States
SNAP participation was not found to be predictive of the frequency of soft drink, 100% fruit juice, or milk consumption among youth. In its current state, SNAP may serve to replace lost income for qualifying households, but not alter their food and beverage choices. Interventions that support access to and incentivize the consumption of more healthful foods and beverages may be successful in improving the nutritional quality of intake. Full Citation: Fernandes MM (2012). Effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on Frequency of Beverage Consumption among Youth in the United States.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 12(8):1241-6.  
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Encouraging Trends in Student Access to Competitive Beverages in US Public Elementary Schools, 2006-2007 to 2010-2011
Survey study finds that students are buying less soda in schools, but sugary sports drinks are still a problem Full Citation: Turner L, Chaloupka FJ. Encouraging Trends in Student Access to Competitive Beverages in US Public Elementary Schools, 2006-2007 to 2010-201. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(7):673-675.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999-2008
This article reports on the prevalence of risk factors for heart disease among adolescents (12-19 years old) from 1999-2008. While there was not a signifcant increase in the prevalence of prehypertension/hypertension or bad cholesterol from 1999-2008, there was a huge increase in prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes: 9% to 23%. Furthermore, 61% of obese youth had at least one risk factor heart disease compared with 37% of normal-weight youth. Citation: May AL, Kuklina EV, Yoon PW. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among US adolescents, 1999-2008. Pediatrics. Jun 2012;129(6):1035-1041.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach.
This experiment  found that eating bananas before and during prolonged and intensive exercise is as effective a strategy for supporting performance in athletes as drinking sports drinks. Full Citation: Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Henson DA, Sha W, Shanely RA, Knab AM, Cialdella-Kam L, Jin F. Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(5): e37479.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soda Consumption and the Risk of Stroke in Men and Women.
Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. Full Citation: Bernstein AM, de Konig L, Flint AJ, et al. Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95: 1190-1199.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks?
This article finds worrying deficiencies in the evidence used by the European Union's Food Safety Authority to evaluate the scientific basis of health claims made about sports drinks. Full Citation: Thompson M, Heneghan C, Cohen D. How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks? BMJ. 2012; 345: e4753.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?
Compared to eating solid foods, drinking liquids tells our body that we can eat more. Full citation: Cassady BA, Considine RV, Mattes RD. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect? Am J Clin Nutr. Mar 2012; 95(3):587-93.
2012 Beverage industry Research Link
Health Impact of Sugary Drinks in Richmond, CA
HEAL Cities with Contra Costa Health Services prepared a factsheet on the health effects of sugary drinks in the city of Richmond, CA. Available in both Spanish and English.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained.
A critical look at the evidence drink manufacturers use to back up claims that the sports drink, Lucozade, enhances sporting performance comes up short. Full Citation: Heneghan C, Perera R, Nunan D, Mahtani K, Gill P. Forty years of sports performance research and little insight gained. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4797.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, have been found to be the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Full Citation: Malik VS, Hu FB. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep. Jan 31 2012.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?
"In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil."Full Citation: Kleiman S, Ng SW, & Popkin B. "Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?" Obesity Reviews. 2012; 13: 258–274.
2012 Beverage industry Research Link
Sugary Drink Supersizing and the Obesity Epidemic
Factsheet from Harvard School of Public Health's The Nutrition Source.  The latest research on how sugary drinks are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Sugary drink portion sizes have risen dramatically over the past 40 years, and children and adults are drinking more soft drinks than ever. Sugary drinks increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and gout. Cutting back on sugary drinks can help people control their weight.
2012 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
The Truth About Sports Drinks.
This article investigates the links between the sports drinks industry and academia that have helped market the science of hydration. Full Citation: Cohen D. The truth about sports drinks. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4737.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach
The article estimates the medical costs associated with obesity in the U.S. Full citation: Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. Jan 2012;31(1):219-230.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity
Findings challenge the view that Western lifestyles result in abnormally low daily energy expenditure, and that decreased energy expenditure is a primary cause of obesity in developed countries. Full Citation: Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, Marlowe FW. Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(7): e40503.
2012 Obesity Research Link
How Washington went soft on childhood obesity.
Reuters investigation  on Washington's relationship with the food and beverage groups that lobbied against the federal effort last year to write tougher – but still voluntary – nutritional standards for foods marketed to children.  They found that the White House kept silent as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children. Full Citation: Wilson D, Roberts J. How Washington went soft on childhood obesity. Reuters. April 27, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/27/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED... Accessed July 27, 2012.
2012 Marketing Media/Opinion Link
Trends in Television Food Advertising to Young People: 2011 Update.
Changes in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage on television from 2002 through 2011 were tracked and compared to adult exposure levels. On average, adolescents viewed 23% more ads in 2011 than in 2007 while adults viewed an increase of 32% more ads in 2011 than in 2007. 2- to 11- years experienced a slight decrease in advertising exposure from 2004 to 2011. Full Citation: Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Trends in television food advertising to young people: 2011 update. Rudd Report.. 2012; Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/doc/what/reports/RuddRepo...
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Federal Trade Commission: Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents
Federal Trade Commission. A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents: follow up report. December 2012. This report is a follow-up to the Federal Trade Commission’s 2008 report requested by Congress: Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self- Regulation. This report compares 2006 to 2009 data (i.e., first 3 years of self-regulation); it contains data from same 44 companies + 4 new; it analyzes spending and nutrition as well as assesses industry self-regulation against 2008 recommendations and identifies gaps.  
2012 Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial
Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages as a weight-loss strategy resulted in average weight losses of 2% to 2.5%. Full Citation: Tate DF, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options COnsciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. N Engl J Med 2011; 364(25): 2392-2404.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Beverage Consumption Among High School Students -- United States, 2010
This analysis of the NYPANS 2010 survey indicated that, although water, milk, and 100% fruit juice were the beverages consumed most commonly during the 7 days before the survey, 24.3% of high school students drank a serving of regular soda or pop, 16.1% drank a serving of a sports drink, and 16.9% drank a serving of another SSB one or more times per day during the week. Full Citation: Brener ND, Merlo C, Eaton D, et al. Beverage consumption among high school students -- United States, 2010. JAMA. 2011; 306(4): 369-371.
2011 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Exposure to Food Advertising on Television: Associations with Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity.
Television exposure, while not significantly correlated with average body weight, reveals significant correlation with increases in obesity and fast food/soft drink consumption.  Full Citation: Adreyeva T, Kelly IR, Harris JL. Exposure to food advertising on television: Associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity. Econ Hum Bio. 2011; 9(3): 221-223.
2011 Marketing Research Link
They Say, We Know
The soda industry consistently uses the same arguments to push back against taxing their products. But only a couple of them are credible, and none of them provides a solid reason to oppose a tax.
2011 Beverage industry Fact Sheet Link

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