PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically)sort descending Published Year Topic Resource Type File URL
How Sugar Sweetened Beverages Became a Leading Contributor to the Obesity Epidemic
Kick the Can's fact sheet about the beverage industry's bold and unrelenting marketing campaigns, increases in sugary drink portion sizes, concerted efforts by the beverage industry to keep prices low, and dramatic expansion of sugary drink product availability.
2013 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks?
This article finds worrying deficiencies in the evidence used by the European Union's Food Safety Authority to evaluate the scientific basis of health claims made about sports drinks. Full Citation: Thompson M, Heneghan C, Cohen D. How valid is the European Food Safety Authority’s assessment of sports drinks? BMJ. 2012; 345: e4753.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
How Washington went soft on childhood obesity.
Reuters investigation  on Washington's relationship with the food and beverage groups that lobbied against the federal effort last year to write tougher – but still voluntary – nutritional standards for foods marketed to children.  They found that the White House kept silent as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children. Full Citation: Wilson D, Roberts J. How Washington went soft on childhood obesity. Reuters. April 27, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/27/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED... Accessed July 27, 2012.
2012 Marketing Media/Opinion Link
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity
Findings challenge the view that Western lifestyles result in abnormally low daily energy expenditure, and that decreased energy expenditure is a primary cause of obesity in developed countries. Full Citation: Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, Marlowe FW. Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(7): e40503.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior: 2008-2012
This review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation summarizes results from studies that have evaluated the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior from 2008-2012. The report finds strong public support for menu labeling, though results about the impact of menu labeling on consumer behavior are mixed. 
2013 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Black Americans’ Health
A report that summarizes sugar-sweetened beverage consumption trends and its health consequences among black American’s. Full Citation: African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network. Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Black Americans' Health. January 2011.
2011 Sugar Research Link
Impact of the Berkeley Excise Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption
Jennifer Falbe, Hannah R. Thompson, Christina M. Becker, Nadia Rojas, Charles E. McCulloch, and Kristine A. Madsen. (2016). Impact of the Berkeley Excise Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption. American Journal of Public Health. e-View Ahead of Print. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303362
2016 Policy Research Link
Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1984-2004.
Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Full Citation: Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics. 2008; 121(6): e1604-e1614.
2008 Sugary drinks Research Link
Increasing Water Availability During Afterschool Snack: Evidence, Strategies, and Partnerships from a Group Randomized Trial
Participation in the intervention was associated with an average daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack. Full Citation: Giles CM, Kenney EL, Gortmaker SL, Lee RM, Thayer JC, Mont-Ferguson H, & Cradock AL. Increasing Water Availability During Afterschool Snack: Evidence, Strategies, and Partnerships from a Group Randomized Trial. American journal of preventive medicine. 2012; 43(3): S136–S142.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain: A Systematic Review
A review of 30 studies about sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain concludes that greater consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight gain and obesity. Full Citation: Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 84(2):274-88.
2006 Sugar Research Link
Intended and unintended consequences of a proposed national tax on sugar-sweetened beverages to combat the U.S. obesity crisis.
This paper estimates that a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages would reduce per capita body weight by 1.54 to 2.55 pounds a year. Full Citation: Dharmasena S, Capps O Jr. Intended and unintended consequences of a proposed national tax on sugar-sweetened beverages to combat the U.S. obesity problem. Health Econ. Mar 2011; 21(6):669-694.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Kick the Can - Fast Facts on Sugary Drinks
Kick the Can - Fast Facts on Sugary Drinks.
Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Kick the Can - They Say, We Know 8/2014 2014 Beverage industry Fact Sheet Link
Kick the Can Factsheet: Sugary Drinks and Diabetes
Kick the Can's Factsheet on "Sugary Drinks and Diabetes".  Sept 2014
2014 Diabetes Fact Sheet Link
Limiting Sugary Drinks Makes Good Sense
Explains the reasons why sugary drinks are detrimental to health, how to decrease your sugary drink consumption, and what your community can do. From CA Project LEAN.
2011 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Liquid Candy
A comprehensive analysis of sugar-sweetened beverages and their effects on health, including historical information and a review of beverage marketing practices. Full citation: Jacobson MF. Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks Are Harming American’s Health. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Second Edition, First Printing: June 2005. Washington D.C.  
2005 Sugar Research Link
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks, Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages
Pirotin S, Becker C, Crawford P (2014).  Looking Beyond the Marketing Claims of New Beverages - Health Risks of Consuming Sports Drinks, Energy Drinks,  Fortified Waters and Other Flavored Beverages.  University of California at Berkeley, Atkins Center for Weight and Health.  This report will discuss the major categories of fortified beverages, presenting data on their nature, their ingredients, their similarities and differences, the possible effects on children of their consumption, and areas for further research.  
2014 Sugary drinks, Marketing Reports and Tool Kits Link
Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States
The consumption of low calorie sweetener containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Full Citation: Sylvetsky AC, Welsh JA, Brown RJ, Vos MB. Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012; ajcn.034751.
2012 Sugary drinks Research Link
Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity
A comprehensive review of current research about the controversial subject of fructose. Full Citation: Tappy L, Le K-A. Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity. Physiological Reviews. 2010; 90:23-46.
2010 Sugar Research Link
Miracle pills and fireproof trainers: user endorsement in social media.
Investigation of the marketing claims of sports products, including sports drinks, in social media in the UK and the US. Full Citation: Smith A, Jones G. Miracle pills and fireproof trainers: user endorsement in social media. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4682.
2012 Marketing Research Link
Model Food and Beverage Policy (PHA)
Model language for organizational food and beverage policy
2013 Policy Legislation/Policy Link
Mythbusting sports and exercise products.
This article examines the evidence behind the 6 primary claims made for sports and exercise products on athletic performance. Full Citation: Heneghan C, Gill P, O'Neil B, Lasserson D, Thake M. Thompson M. Mythbusting sports and exercise products. BMJ. 2012; 345: e4848.
2012 Marketing Research Link
No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.
Kuzma et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:1373–80. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption.
2015 Sugary drinks Research Link
Nonnutritive Sweeteners: Current Use and Health Perspectives from the American Heart Association
"At this time, there are insufficient data to determine conclusively whether the use of nonnutritive sweeteners to displace caloric sweeteners in beverages and foods reduces added sugars or carbohydrate intakes, or benefits appetite, energy balance, body weight, or cardiometabolic risk factors." Full Citation: Gardner C, Wylie-Rosett J, Gidding SS, Steffen LM, Johnson RK, Reader D, & Lichtenstein AH.  "Nonnutritive Sweeteners: Current Use and Health Perspectives. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association" Circulation. 2012;126:509-519.
2012 Sugar Research Link
NYC's Pouring on the Pounds Community Action Kit
Toolkit from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Pouring on the Pounds campaign to help fight obesity by limiting sugary drink consumption.
2012 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030
This study estimates a 33% increase in obesity prevalence and a 130% increase in severe obesity prevalence over the next 2 decades. Full Citation: Finkelstein EA, Khavjou OA, Thompson H, et al. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030. Am J Prev Med. Jun 2012;42(6):563-570.
2012 Obesity Research Link
Obesity and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in African-American Preschool Children: A Longitunal Study
"In this longitudinal cohort of low-income African-American preschool children, we found that baseline consumption of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with BMI z-scores" Full Citation: Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM, et al. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity. 2009; 17(6): 1262-1268.
2009 Obesity Research Link
Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study
The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents. Full Citation: Lesser LI, Zimmerman FJ, Cohen DA. "Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:20.
2013 Marketing Research Link
Overweight and Obesity
Kick the Can's fact sheet on overweight and obesity, and the role sugary drinks play.
2013 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment
Overweight in children and adolescents can result in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. The best approach to this problem is prevention of abnormal weight gain. Full Citation: Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation. Apr 19 2005;111(15):1999-2012.
2005 Obesity Research Link
Parent Beliefs about Sugary Drinks Factsheet - Rudd Center
The new Rudd Center study, “Parents’ beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions,” was published online March 11 in the journal Public Health Nutrition. It was designed to assess potential misperceptions among parents regarding the healthfulness of sugary drinks for their children. The study included an online survey of an ethnically diverse, national sample of 982 parents, each with at least one 2- to 17-year-old child, in 2011. Ninety-six percent of parents provided an average of approximately three different categories of sugary drinks for their children in the month prior to the survey, and many reported relying upon on-package claims in their purchase decisions.
2015 Marketing Fact Sheet Link
Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle
A review of changing beverage consumption patterns from 1977-2006 showing a marked decrease in milk consumption and increase in sugar sweetened beverage consumption. Full citation: Popkin BM. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. Physiology and Behavior. 2010; 100: 4-9.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
PHAdvocates Diabetes Legislative Factsheet
PHAdvocates Diabetes Legislative Factsheet
2016 Diabetes Fact Sheet Link
PHAdvocates Restaurant Survey FINAL Sugary drinks Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Plain-Water Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women.
"Substitution of plain water for sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of type 2 diabetes." Full Citation: Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, et al. Plain-Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(6): 1454-1460.
2012 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Prediabetes in California: Nearly Half of California Adults on Path to Diabetes
Babey et al. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. March 2016. In California, more than 13 million adults (46 percent of all adults in the state) are estimated to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes. An additional 2.5 million adults have diagnosed diabetes. Altogether, 15.5 million adults (55 percent of all California adults) have prediabetes or diabetes. Although rates of prediabetes increase with age, rates are also high among young adults, with one-third of those ages 18-39 having prediabetes. In addition, rates of prediabetes are disproportionately high among young adults of color, with more than one-third of Latino, Pacific Islander, American Indian, African-American, and multiracial Californians ages 18-39 estimated to have prediabetes. Policy efforts should focus on reducing the burden of prediabetes and diabetes through support for prevention and treatment.
2016 Diabetes Research Link
Press release: SSB warning label study in Pediatrics 2016 Policy Research Link
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999-2008
This article reports on the prevalence of risk factors for heart disease among adolescents (12-19 years old) from 1999-2008. While there was not a signifcant increase in the prevalence of prehypertension/hypertension or bad cholesterol from 1999-2008, there was a huge increase in prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes: 9% to 23%. Furthermore, 61% of obese youth had at least one risk factor heart disease compared with 37% of normal-weight youth. Citation: May AL, Kuklina EV, Yoon PW. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among US adolescents, 1999-2008. Pediatrics. Jun 2012;129(6):1035-1041.
2012 Obesity Research Link

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