PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Sugar-sweetened beverages and health: where does the evidence stand?
Although more research is needed, the weight of the evidence based on previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies shows clear and consistent associations between SSBs and obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases. This evidence is also supported by findings from mechanistic and experimental studies.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
CA WIC Rethink Your Drink- Poster
Poster showing the number of teaspoons of sugar in different beverage types. From California WIC.
2011 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Consumption of Added Sugars and Indicators of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among US Adolescents
Increased added sugar consumption in adolescents was found to be positively associated with known indicators of increased cardiovascular disease risk, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Full citation: Welsh JA, Sharma A, Cunningham SA, Vos MB. Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents. Circulation. 2011; 123:249-257.
2011 Sugar Research Link
Clinical Report -- Sports Drinks and Energy Drinks for Children and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate?
A clinical report defining the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorizing the similarities and differences between the products, and discussing misuses and abuses. Full Citation: Committee on Nutrition and the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Clinical Report -- Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: Are they appropriate? Pediatrics. 2011; 127: 1182-1189.
2011 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
CA WIC Rethink Your Drink- Beverage Cards
From California WIC, these cards describe just how much sugar is in each type of sugary drink.
2011 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity
Documented report on the amount and impact of sugary drink marketing directed at children and adolescents. Full Citation: Hariss JL, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD, et al. Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. 2011.
2011 Beverage industry Reports and Tool Kits Link
Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Black Americans’ Health
A report that summarizes sugar-sweetened beverage consumption trends and its health consequences among black American’s. Full Citation: African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network. Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Black Americans' Health. January 2011.
2011 Sugar Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Factsheet - Spanish
Bebidas Azucaradas:Más Azúcar, Más Calorías, Más Sobrepeso.  2011.  By CCPHA
2011 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Factsheet - English
Sugar-sweetened beverages: Extra Sugar, Extra Calories, Extra Weight.  By CCPHA
2011 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men
Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Associations between artificially sweetened beverage consumption and type 2 diabetes is largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight chance, dieting, and body mass index. Full Citation: de Koning L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, et al. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93(6): 1321-1327.
2011 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?
A systematic review finding that sugary drinks account for at least one-fifth of all weight gained in the US population between 1977 and 2007.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Intended and unintended consequences of a proposed national tax on sugar-sweetened beverages to combat the U.S. obesity crisis.
This paper estimates that a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages would reduce per capita body weight by 1.54 to 2.55 pounds a year. Full Citation: Dharmasena S, Capps O Jr. Intended and unintended consequences of a proposed national tax on sugar-sweetened beverages to combat the U.S. obesity problem. Health Econ. Mar 2011; 21(6):669-694.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women
Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25%  increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults. Full Citation: Stanhope KL, Bremer AA, Medici V, et al. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Oct 2011;96(10):E1596-1605.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Soda Industry Political Spending
"Soda Industry Ups Political Spending to Fight Proposed Sugary Drink Taxes." Center for Science in the Public Interest.
2011 Beverage industry Legislation/Policy Link
Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food
This review examines the effect of liquid versus solid carbohydrates on satiety. Citation: Pan A, Hu FB. Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. Jul 2011;14(4):385-390.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long- Term Weight Gain in Women and Men
Long-term weight gain is associated with specific lifestyle (ex. alcohol, smoking, sleep, physical activity, and television watching) and dietary factors (ex. intake of potato chips, sugar-sweetened beverages, processed/unprocessed meats vs vegetables, fruits, whole grains, yogurt) Full Citation: Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, et al. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med . 2011; 364(25): 2392-2404.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Avoiding Weight Bias in Portrayals of Overweight and Obese People in Media Campaigns
This fact sheet from the Rudd Center describes weight bias, and offers guidelines for avoiding it in sugar-sweetened beverage media campaigns.
2011 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity
Even though children’s fruit drinks often come in smaller 6- to 7-ounce containers, two-thirds of these drinks contain more than 15 rams of sugar, the maximum amount that children should consume in a day, and one-third contain 20 grams or more. Full Citation: Harris JL, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD, et al. Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth. New Haven: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. 2011.
2011 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Brand Appearance During Prime-Time Television Programming.
Coca-Cola products were seen 198 times by the average child and 269 times by the average adolescent during prime-time shows over the course of 2008, accounting for 70% of child exposure and 61% of adolescent exposure to brand appearances.  Full Citation: Speers SE, Harris JL, Schwartz MB. Child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage brand appearance during prime-time television programming. Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41(3): 291-296.
2011 Marketing Research Link
Beverage Consumption Among High School Students -- United States, 2010
This analysis of the NYPANS 2010 survey indicated that, although water, milk, and 100% fruit juice were the beverages consumed most commonly during the 7 days before the survey, 24.3% of high school students drank a serving of regular soda or pop, 16.1% drank a serving of a sports drink, and 16.9% drank a serving of another SSB one or more times per day during the week. Full Citation: Brener ND, Merlo C, Eaton D, et al. Beverage consumption among high school students -- United States, 2010. JAMA. 2011; 306(4): 369-371.
2011 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
Exposure to Food Advertising on Television: Associations with Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity.
Television exposure, while not significantly correlated with average body weight, reveals significant correlation with increases in obesity and fast food/soft drink consumption.  Full Citation: Adreyeva T, Kelly IR, Harris JL. Exposure to food advertising on television: Associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity. Econ Hum Bio. 2011; 9(3): 221-223.
2011 Marketing Research Link
They Say, We Know
The soda industry consistently uses the same arguments to push back against taxing their products. But only a couple of them are credible, and none of them provides a solid reason to oppose a tax.
2011 Beverage industry Fact Sheet Link
Beverage Patterns and Trends Among School-Aged children in the US, 1989-2008
School-aged children have showed substantial increase in SSB consumption (particularly fruit drinks, high fat-high sugar milk, soft drinks, and sports drinks) and decrease in consumption of high fat-low sugar milk over the years 1989-91 and 2007-08. Full Citation: Lasater G, Piernas C, Popkin BM. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008. Nutr J.. 2001; 10(103): 1-9.
2011 Sugary drinks Research Link
Consumption of Added Sugars is Decreasing in the United States
Although the consumption of added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. Full Citation: Welsh JA, Sharma AJ, Grellinger L, et al. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States. AJCN. 2011; 94: 726-734.
2011 Sugar Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men
Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Associations between artificially sweetened beverage consumption and type 2 diabetes is largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight chance, dieting, and body mass index. Full Citation: de Koning L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, et al. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93(6): 1321-1327.
2011 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
How Much Sugar?
Find out how much sugar is in your favorite brand of drinks!
2011 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity: It is All About Fructose
This review concludes on the basis of the data assembled here that in the amounts currently consumed, fructose is hazardous to the cardiometabolic health of many children, adolescents and adults. Full Citation: Bray, GA. Soft drink consumption and obesity: it is all about fructose. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2010; 21: 51-57.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity
A comprehensive review of current research about the controversial subject of fructose. Full Citation: Tappy L, Le K-A. Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity. Physiological Reviews. 2010; 90:23-46.
2010 Sugar Research Link
Drinking Caloric Beverages Increases the Risk of Adverse Cardiometabolic Outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
This study suggests that higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.  Full Citation: Duffey KJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Steffen LM, et al. Drinking caloric beverages increases the risk of adverse cadriometabolic outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 954-959.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth
Data from large, epidemiologic studies suggest the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Full Citation: Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. Aug 2010;5(4):305-312.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can lead to weight gain and substantially increase risk of developing chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and chronic heart disease. Full Citation: Hu FB, Malik VS. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type two diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence. Physiol Behav. 2010; 100(2); 46-54.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
The Impact of Food Prices on Consumption: A Systematic Review of Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Food.
"Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7– 0.8)." Full Citation: Andreyeva T, Long MW, Brownell KD. The impact of food prices on consumption: A systematic review of research on price elasticity of demand for food. Am J Pub Health. 2010; 100(2): 216-222.
2010 Beverage industry Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Sugar-sweetened beverages intake is a significant contibutor to weight gain and can lead to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. Full Citation: Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation. 2010; 121: 1356-1364.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010
Use of artificial sweeteners may actually contribute to weight gain. Full Citation: Yang Q. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010. Yale J Biol Med. Jun 2010;83(2):101-108.
2010 Sugary drinks Research
Sports Drinks
This fact sheet from the Rudd Center gives the rationale for including sports drinks in the sugar-sweetened beverage category.
2010 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Flavored or Enhanced Waters
This fact sheet from the Rudd Center gives the rationale for including flavored waters in the sugar-sweetened beverage category.
2010 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Energy Drinks
 This fact sheet from the Rudd Center explains what energy drinks are and offers a rationale for including them in the sugar-sweetened beverage category.
2010 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle
A review of changing beverage consumption patterns from 1977-2006 showing a marked decrease in milk consumption and increase in sugar sweetened beverage consumption. Full citation: Popkin BM. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. Physiology and Behavior. 2010; 100: 4-9.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
A review of 11 research studies concludes that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake raises the risk of diabetes by 26% and the risk of metabolic syndrome by 20%. Full Citation: Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despr’es JP, Willet WC, Hu FB. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33:2477–2483.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
A review of 11 research studies concludes that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake raises the risk of diabetes by 26% and the risk of metabolic syndrome by 20%. Full Citation: Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despr’es JP, Willet WC, Hu FB. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33:2477–2483.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link Link

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