PUBLICATIONS

Title (Click to sort alphabetically) Published Yearsort ascending Topic Resource Type File URL
Flavored or Enhanced Waters
This fact sheet from the Rudd Center gives the rationale for including flavored waters in the sugar-sweetened beverage category.
2010 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle
A review of changing beverage consumption patterns from 1977-2006 showing a marked decrease in milk consumption and increase in sugar sweetened beverage consumption. Full citation: Popkin BM. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. Physiology and Behavior. 2010; 100: 4-9.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
Energy Drinks
 This fact sheet from the Rudd Center explains what energy drinks are and offers a rationale for including them in the sugar-sweetened beverage category.
2010 Sugary drinks Fact Sheet Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
A review of 11 research studies concludes that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake raises the risk of diabetes by 26% and the risk of metabolic syndrome by 20%. Full Citation: Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despr’es JP, Willet WC, Hu FB. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33:2477–2483.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link Link
Why Government Must Lead the Fight Against Obesity
A review of obesity prevention policies from around the world that concludes “only governments- national, regional, and local- have the scope, scale and mandate to ensure the participation and collaboration of all stakeholders” necessary for obesity prevention. Full Citation: Algazy J, Gipstein S,  Farhad Riahi F, Tryon K. Why governments must lead the fight against obesity. McKinsey Quarterly. October 2010.
2010 Obesity Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
A review of 11 research studies concludes that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake raises the risk of diabetes by 26% and the risk of metabolic syndrome by 20%. Full Citation: Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despr’es JP, Willet WC, Hu FB. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33:2477–2483.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link Link
Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can lead to weight gain and substantially increase risk of developing chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and chronic heart disease. Full Citation: Hu FB, Malik VS. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type two diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence. Physiol Behav. 2010; 100(2); 46-54.
2010 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Childhood obesity
The worldwide obesity epidemic is believed to be a major contributor to increasing occurances of childhood type 2 diabetes. However, recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating with continued efforts addressing childhood obesity.  Full Citation: Han JC, Lawlor DA, Kimm SY. Childhood obesity. Lancet. May 15 2010;375(9727):1737-1748
2010 Obesity Educational material Link
Caloric Sweetener Consumption and Dyslipidemia Among US Adults
This study used NHANES data from 1999-2006 to evaluate the association between added sugar intake and blood lipid levels. Results show a significant correlation between added sugar intake and blood lipid levels among adults in the U.S. Full citation: Welsh JA, Sharma A, Abramson JL, Vaccarino V, Gillespie C, Vos MB. Caloric sweetener consumption and dyslipidemia among US adults. Jama. Apr 21 2010;303(15):1490-1497.
2010 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Challenge We Face
Excerpt from: "Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity within a Generation." White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President. May 2010.
2010 Obesity Fact Sheet Link
High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Controversies and Common Sense
This review addresses the controversial evidence of high-fructose corn syrup as a contributor to the obesity epidemic by exploring the metabolic and nutritional effects of high-fructose corn syrup in relation to sucrose.  Full Citation: White J, Foreyt J, Melanson K, Angelopoulos T. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Controversies and Common Sense. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010;4(6):515-520.
2010 Sugar Research Link Link
Annenberg Philadelphia Healthy Lifestyles Initiative Survey
Results from the Annenberg Philadelphia Healthy Lifestyles Initiative (PHLI) Survey, 2010.
2010 Obesity Media/Opinion Link
American Beverage Association Press Releases about Soda Tax
American Beverage Association Press Releases related to a soda tax, 2009-2010.
2009-2010 Beverage industry Media/Opinion Link
Diabetes of the Liver: The Link Between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and HFCS-55
"We argue that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) causes increased hepatic triglyceride content and markers of insulin resistance in vitro (test tube environment) and in vivo (living organism environment). Our observations provide evidence for a mechanism by which HFCS-55 may cause hepatic lipogenesis and metabolic dysregulation similar to NAFLD." Full Citation: Collison KS, Saleh SM, Bakheet RH, et al. Diabetes of the liver: The link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and HFCS-55. Obesity. 2009; 17: 2003-2013.
2009 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Sugar Water Gets a Facelift
What marketing does for soda. Full Citation: Berkeley Media Studies Group. Sugar Water Gets a Facelift: What Marketing Does for Soda. September, 2009.
2009 Marketing Research Link
Artificially Sweetened Beverages: Cause for Concern
Artificially sweetened beverages may not be the optimal "diet drink" for weight loss. Full Citation: Ludwig DS. Artificially sweetened beverages: cause for concern. Jama. Dec 9 2009;302(22):2477-2478.
2009 Sugary drinks Educational material Link
Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
Study suggesting that, while glucose and fructose consumption lead to weight gain, dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.  Full Citation: Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009; 119: 1322-1334.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Coca-Cola Opinion Article Against Soda Tax
Atlanta Journal and Constitution, April 5, 2009, anti-soda tax article by Sandy Douglas (President of Coca-Cola North America).
2009 Beverage industry Media/Opinion Link
Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Metabolic Syndrome
80% of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients display higher soft drink consumption in comparison to 17% of healthy controls. Full Citation: Abid A, Taha O, Nseir W, Farah R, et al. Soft drink consumption is associated with fatty liver disease independent of metabolic syndrome. J Hep. 2009; 51: 918-924.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Serum Uric Acid, and Blood Pressure in Adolescents.
Results from a nationally representative sample of US adolescents indicate that higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher serum uric acid levels and systolic blood pressure. Full Citation: Nguyen S, Choi HK, Lustig RH, Hsu C. Sugar-sweetened beverages, serum uric acid, and blood pressure in adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009; 145: 807-813.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes and Its Association With Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Hyperinsulinemia Among U.S. Adolescents
Pre-diabetes was highly prevalent among adolescents. Hyperinsulinemia was independently associated with pre-diabetes and may account for the association of overweight and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors with pre-diabetes. Full Citation: Li C, Ford ES, Zhao G, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of pre-diabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsulinemia among U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Diabetes Care. Feb 2009;32(2):342-347.
2009 Diabetes Research Link
Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women
"Regular consumption of SSBs is associated with a higher risk of CHD in women, even after other unhealthful lifestyle or dietary factors are accounted for." Full Citation: Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM, et al. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4): 1037-1042.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Obesity and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in African-American Preschool Children: A Longitunal Study
"In this longitudinal cohort of low-income African-American preschool children, we found that baseline consumption of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with BMI z-scores" Full Citation: Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM, et al. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity. 2009; 17(6): 1262-1268.
2009 Obesity Research Link
Diabetes of the Liver: The Link Between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and HFCS-55
"We argue that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) causes increased hepatic triglyceride content and markers of insulin resistance in vitro (test tube environment) and in vivo (living organism environment). Our observations provide evidence for a mechanism by which HFCS-55 may cause hepatic lipogenesis and metabolic dysregulation similar to NAFLD." Full Citation: Collison KS, Saleh SM, Bakheet RH, et al. Diabetes of the liver: The link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and HFCS-55. Obesity. 2009; 17: 2003-2013.
2009 Diabetes, Sugar Research Link
Reduction in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is Associated with Weight Loss: The PREMIER Trial.
A reduction in intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was significantly associated with weight loss. Full Citation: Chen L, Appel LJ, Loria C, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: The PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(5): 1299-1306.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
The Negative Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Children’s Health
A research review synthesizing the negative health impacts of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on children. Full citation: Healthy Eating Research. The Negative Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Children’s Health. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, November 2009.
2009 Sugar Research Link
Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals
Studies on effective weight loss strategies maintained by weight loss individuals maintaining at least 10% weight loss reveal more use of dietary strategies to accomplish weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction on fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Full Citation: Phelan S, Lang W, Jordan D, Wing RR. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals. Int J Obes (Lond). Oct 2009;33(10):1183-1190.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Bubbling Over: Soda Consumption and Its Link to Obesity in California
This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties and investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Full Citation: Babey SH, Jones M, Yu H, Goldstein H. Bubbling Over: Soda Consumption and Its Link to Obesity in California. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and California Center for Public Health Advocacy, 2009.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood has been found to be directly associated with increased BMI in adulthood for women.  Full Citation: Nissinen K, Mikkila V, Mannisto S, et al. Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Public Health Nutr. Nov 2009; 12(11): 2018-2026.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
A 2009 review paper that provides an important summary of sugar's effect on health and cardiovascular disease. Full Citation: Rachel K. Johnson, Lawrence J. Appel, Michael Brands, Barbara V. Howard, Michael Lefevre, Robert H. Lustig, Frank Sacks, Lyn M. Steffen, Judith Wylie-Rosett, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009; 120: 1011-1020.  
2009 Sugar Research Link
Are you drinking your teeth away? How soda and sports drinks dissolve enamel
Drinking of acidic beverages (such as sugar-sweetened beverages) lead to dental erosion. Contributing factors include what, how much, when, and how you drink. Full Citation: Buyer DM. Are you drinking your teeth away? How soda and sports drinks dissolve enamel. J Indiana Dent Assoc. Summer 2009;88(2):11-13.
2009 Sugary drinks Reports and Tool Kits Link
The Economic Costs of Overweight, Obesity, and Physical Inactivity Among California Adults -- 2006
This study estimated the cost to California for overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity in 2006 to be $41.2 billion. Of the total costs, $21.0 billion was attributable to overweight and obesity and $20.2 billion was attributable to physical inactivity. Fulll Citation: Chenoweth & Associates, Inc. THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, AND PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG CALIFORNIA ADULTS — 2006. California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 2009.
2009 Obesity Reports and Tool Kits Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and BMI in Children and Adolescents: Reanalyses of a Meta-Analysis
"Overall, our findings, in contrast to those by Forshee et al, clearly suggest a positive association between SSB intake and BMI among children. We believe that the reasons for the discrepant results between Forshee et al and others stem from analytic errors in their meta-analysis." Full Citation: Malik VS, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI in children and adolescents: reanalyses of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 438-439.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Beverage Intake of Girls at Age 5 y Predicts Adiposity and Weight Status in Childhood and Adolescence
In a longitudinal study, sugar-sweetened beverage intake was positively associated with adiposity from age 5 y to 15 y. Full Citation: Fiorito LM, Marini M, Francis LA, Smiciklas-Wright, Birch LL. Beverage intake of girls at age 5 y predicts adiposity and weight status in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90: 935-942.
2009 Sugary drinks Research Link
Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-Term Weight Gain
Includes a helpful review of the literature on diet beverages and the health effects of artificial sweeteners. Full Citation: Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain. Obesity. 2008; 16: 1849-1900.
2008 Sugar Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American women.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Full Citation: Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(14): 1487-1492.
2008 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
Who Owns What?
Visual depiction of the sugary drink industry structure. Full Citation: Howard PM. The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industry. 2008.
2008 Beverage industry Research Link
Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1984-2004.
Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Full Citation: Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics. 2008; 121(6): e1604-e1614.
2008 Sugary drinks Research Link
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American women.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Full Citation: Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(14): 1487-1492.
2008 Sugary drinks, Diabetes Research Link
High sucrose intake is associated with poor quality of diet and growth between 13 months and 9 years of age: the special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project
In children aged 13 months to 9 years, long-term low sucrose intake is associated with better nutrient intake and growth than high sucrose intake. Full Citation: Ruottinen S, Niinikoski H, Lagstrom H, et al. High sucrose intake is associated with poor quality of diet and growth between 13 months and 9 years of age: the special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Pediatrics. Jun 2008;121(6):e1676-1685.
2008 Sugar Research Link

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